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229 Cards in this Set

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Chemical nomenclature:

-same substance chemically, but in a different form
allotrope
Chemical nomenclature:

-capable of acting as an acid or a base
amphoteric
Chemical nomenclature:

-situation where catalyst & regulatory enzyme are the same
*end product inhibits initial
reaction
allosterism
Chemical nomenclature:

-system which resists marked changes in solution pH
buffer
Chemical nomenclature:

-passage of charged particles toward a cathode in electrophresis
catephoresis
Chemical nomenclature:

-movement of charged particles suspended in liquid under the influence of an electrical field
electrophoresis
Chemical nomenclature:

-compounds with mirror image isomerism, optical density
entiomer
Chemical nomenclature:

-enzymatic decomposition of carbohydrates
fermentation
Chemical nomenclature:

-sugar breakdown
glycolysis
Chemical nomenclature:

-AKA gluconeogenesis
-formation of carbohydrates from non-carbohydrate source
glyconeogenesis
Chemical nomenclature:

-forming glucose from glycogen
glycogenolysis
Chemical nomenclature:

-same molecular formula, different arrangement
isomer
Chemical nomenclature:

-same atomic number (protons) , different atomic weight (neutrons)
isotope
Chemical nomenclature:

-enzymes of different structure, same function
-ex: lactate dehydrogenase & pepsin
isozyme
Chemical nomenclature:

-the pH of a solution at which a charged ion does not migrate to either pole in an electric field
isoelectric point
Chemical nomenclature:

-sulfur analogs to alcohols
mercaptens
Chemical nomenclature:

-loss of electrons
-ex: NADP ----> NADH
oxidation
Chemical nomenclature:

-gain of electrons
-ex: NADPH -----> NADP
reduction
Chemical nomenclature:

-alkali hydrolysis of a TAG
-yields a glycerol & a soap
saponification
Chemical nomenclature:

-a metallic salt of a fatty acid
soap
Chemical nomenclature:

-isomers with different spatial & configurational formulas
stereoisomer
Chemical nomenclature:

-an amino acid at its isoelectric point
-least soluble form
Zwitter ion
Name the chemical test:

-detects presence of glycerol
Acrolein test
Name the chemical test:

-differentiates mono from disaccharides
Barfoed's test
Name the chemical test:

-detects dextrose
Benedict's test
Name the chemical test:

-detects peptide linkages
Biuret test
Name the chemical test:

-detects dextrose in urine
Fehling's test
Name the chemical test:

-detects number of unsaturated fatty acids present
Iodine number test
Name the chemical test:

-red strip = turns blue in basic
-blue strip = turns red in acidic
Litmus test
How many kCal/gram in Alcohol?
7.1 kCal/gram
How many kCal/gram in Carbohydrates?
4.2 kCal/gram
How many kCal/gram in Fat?
9.5 kCal/gram
How many kCal/gram in Protein?
4.3 kCal/gram
What is the metabolic "fate" of cholesterol?
A bile salt
Name the 2 major types of bile salts.
1) Glycocholic acid

2) Taurocholic acid
How do bile salts taste?
extremely bitter
What are 4 functions of bile salts?
1) accelerate pancreatic lipase action

2) aid in fat soluble vitamin absorption

3) keep cholesterol in solution

4) stimulate intestinal motility
Bile salts are formed via ______ linkages.
peptide
What are the properties of bile salts?
Water soluble w/ strong detergent action
Definition:

-molecules of 3 or more carbons containing less than 1 hydroxyl group & an aldehyde (glucose) or keto (fructose) group
Carbohydrate
GLUCOSE + FRUCTOSE = ?
SUCROSE
GLUCOSE + GALACTOSE= ?
LACTOSE
GLUCOSE + GLUCOSE = ?
MALTOSE
Name 5 types of monosaccharides.
1) Glucose

2) Fructose

3) Galactose

4) Ribose

5) Deoxyribose
Name 3 types of disaccharides.
1) Sucrose

2) Lactose

3) Maltose
Name 2 types of trioses.
1) Glyceraldehyde

2) Dihydroxyacetone
Name 4 types of polysaccharides.
1) Starch
2) Glycogen
3) Cellulose
4) Pectins
Name the carbohydrate:

-"table sugar"
-Alpha 1,4 linkages
Sucrose
-disaccharide
Name the carbohydrate:

-"milk sugar"
-Beta 1,4 linkages
-Reducing sugar
Lactose
-disaccharide
Name the carbohydrate:

-"malt sugar"
-Alpha 1,4 linkages
Maltose
Trioses are made of what?
Monosaccharides
Name the carbohydrate:

-plant storage
-Alpha 1,4 linkages
Starch
Name the carbohydrate:

-animal storage
-Alpha 1,4 linkages
Glycogen
Name the carbohydrate:

-indigestible dietary fiber
-Beta 1,4 linkages
Cellulose
Name the carbohydrate:

-soluble, not digestibe
Pectins
What transports sugars from blood plasma to the cell environment?
Insulin
Where does the majority of carbohydrate digestion take place?
small intestine via intestinal mucosa
Name the 4 associated enzymes in carbohydrate digestion.
1) maltase
2) amylase (salivary & pancreatic)
3) dextrinases (alpha 1,6)
4) sucrase
Where does absorption of carbohydrates take place?
into the portal system
Name the 5 B-Complex Vitamins.
"The Person Fed Nine Geese"

TPP
Pantothenic Acid
FAD
NAD
GTP
How many ATP are produced in the process of Glycolysis?
2
How many ATP are produced in the HMP shunt?
8
How many ATP are produced in the Electron Transport Chain?
3
How many ATP are produced in the TCA (Kreb's) cycle?
36
Name the 3 types of metabolism.
1) Intracellular
2) Anaerobic
3) Aerobic
Intracellular metabolism is termed?
Hexose Monophosphate (HMP) shunt
Name 2 AKA's for the HMP shunt.
1) Phosphogluconate oxidative pathway

2) Pentose Shunt
What is the purpose of the HMP shunt?
Produce reducing power
What is the function of the HMP shunt?
Converts 5 carbon sugars to 3 & 6 carbon sugars.
What are the 3 products made from the HMP shunt?
1) 15 Carbons

2) 2 NADPH

3) 8 ATP
A form of anaerobic metabolism is called?
Glycolysis
What is the AKA for Glycolysis?
Embden-Myerfoff pathway
What are the 2 products made from Glycolysis?
1) 2 ATP

2) 2 Pyruvate
What is the efficiency of Glycolysis?
30%
Name the (-) modulator (allosteric site) of Glycolysis.
ATP
Name the (+) modulator (catalyst) of Glycolysis.
AMP
Name the oxidizing agent for Glycolysis.
NAD
Name the reducing agent for Glycolysis.
NADH
What is the allosteric enzyme for Glycolysis?
PFK
Which 2 agents have ATP producing ability in Glycolysis?
1) 1,3 DPG

2) PEP
Name 2 pathways involved with Aerobic Metabolism.
1) TCA Cycle

2) Electron Transport Chain
What is the overall reaction of the TCA cycle?
CH3COOH + (2) H2O ---> (2) CO2 + (8) H+
What produces ATP in the TCA cycle?
1) NADH (mitochondria) = 3

2) NADH (cytoplasm) = 2

3) FADH2 (mitochondria = 2

4) GTP = 1
Name the reducing agent in the TCA Cycle.
Isocitrate
Name the oxidizing agent in the TCA Cycle.
NAD
What are the 2 reducing coenzymes in the TCA Cycle?
1) NADH2

2) FADH2
What is the efficiency of the TCA Cycle?
38%
What is the function of the TCA cycle?
Pyruvate oxidation
What are the two allosteric enzymes in the TCA cycle?
1) Isocitrate dehydrogenase

2) Citrate synthetase
In the pre-cycle stage of the TCA cycle, how many ATP are produced?
12
In the TCA cycle itself, how many ATP are produced?
24 (2 cycles)
What are the 3 end products of the pre-cycle stage of the TCA cycle?
1) 2 pyruvate
2) 2 NADH (mito)
3) 2 NADH (cyto)
What are the 3 end products of the TCA cycle?
1) 3 NADH (mito)
2) 1 FADH2
3) 1 GTP
What is the efficiency of the electron transport system?
40%
What are the 3 main functions of the electron transport chain?
1) promote pyruvate entry into cytosol

2) promote phosphate & ADP into cytosol

3) promote exit of ATP during oxidative phosphorylation
Where in the cell does the Electron Transport System occur?
Inner mitochondrial membrane
Name the 6 redox enzymes involved in the electron transport chain.
1) NAD, NADP

2) FAD, FMN

3) cytochromes

4) coenzyme Q (ubiquinone)
Name the redox enzyme of the electron transport chain:

-Nicotinamiode containing
NAD
NADP
Name the redox enzyme of the electron transport chain:

-Riboflavin containing
FAD
FMN
Name the redox enzyme of the electron transport chain:

-Electron transfer via oxidation state changes
cytochromes
Name the redox enzyme of the electron transport chain:

-"Shuttle"
coenzyme Q
(ubiquinone)
Name 3 types of ketone bodies.
1) Acetone
2) Acetoacetic acid
3) Beta-hydroxybutyric acid
Name the 3 Essential Fatty Acids.
1) Linoleic acic

2) Linolenic acid

3) Arachidonic Acid
Which essential fatty acid synthesized prostaglandins?
Arachidonic Acid
In what 2 cases are ketone bodies elevated?
1) Diabetes melllitus

2) starvation
What are the 4 functions of lipids?
1) Energy source
2) Thermal insulation
3) Cell membrane structure
4) Secondary sex characteristics
What 3 things does Lipolysis yield?
1) Acetyl CoA
2) NADH
3) FADH2
Name the 7 Categories of Lipids.
1) Fatty acids
2) Triglycerides (TAG)
3) Waxes
4) Sterols
5) Carotenes
6) Sphingolipids
7) Phospholipids
Name the lipid category:

-single carboxyl group with long, nonpolar hydrocarbon tail
Fatty acid
Name the lipid category:

-esters of glycerol (3 FA's + glycerol)

-major component of storage fats
Triglycerides
Name the lipid category:

-esters of long chain fatty acids
waxes
Name the lipid category:

-nonsaponifiable lipids
-ex: cholesterol
Sterol
Name the lipid category:

-membrane components
Sphingolipids
Name the lipid category:

-membrane lipids
-emulsification
Phospholipids
Name the structure that transports lipids:

-triglyceride transport from the digestive tract
Chylomicron
Name the structure that transports lipids:

-transport from liver
VLDV
Name the structure that transports lipids:

-cholesterol "donor"
LDL
Name the structure that transports lipids:

-cholesterol "acceptor"
HDL
Site of Fatty Acid synthesis?
Cytoplasm
Site of Fatty Acid oxidation?
Mitochondria
Lipids dissolve in which 3 substances?
1) Chloroform
2) Benzene
3) Ether
How is cholesterol synthesized?
1) Acetyl CoA
2) HMG CoA
3) Mevalonate
4) Isoprene
5) Geranyl pyrophosphate
6) Squalene
7)Lanosterol
8) Cholesterol
What determines the function of a protein?
The AMINE group
Which elements do proteins contain?
C,H,O,N
sometimes S or P
What do you call a chain of 50-100 amino acids?
polypeptide
End product of purine metabolism?
Uric acid
Product of nitrogen breakdown?
Urea
Enzymatic degradatinon of proteins is called?
Putrefication
Putrefication yields which 3 products?
1) mercaptens
2) hydrogen sulfide
3) ammonia
Proteins are bonded together via _________ ________.
Peptide linkages
Name the 4 types of proteins.
1) simple
2) conjugated
3) globular
4) fibrous
Name the type of protein:

-amino acids only
Simple
Name the type of protein:

-amino acids + an organic compound

-ex: hemoglobin
Conjugated
Name the type of protein:

-water soluble
-ex: enzyme
Globular
Name the type of protein:

-water INsoluble
-ex: connective tissue & collagen
Fibrous
What is the function of the Urea cycle?
elimination of ammonium ions
Name the vitamin involved in:

-glycolysis
-TCA cycle (TPP)
-Aldehyde transfer (coenzyme)
B1
Name the vitamin involved in:

-TCA cycle
-ETS (FMN, FAD)
-coenzyme
-fat metabolism
B2
Name the vitamin involved in:

-Glycolysis
-TCA cycle (NAD)
-ETS
B3
Name the vitamin involved in:

-protein metabolism
B6
Name the vitamin involve in:

-nucleic acid synthesis
B9
Name the vitamin involved in:

-folate metabolism
-contains cobalt
-hydrogen shifts
B12
Name the vitamin involved in:

-visual cycle
Vitamin A
Name the vitamin involved in:

-antioxidant
Vitamin E
Name the vitamin involved in:

-glycolysis
-fat synthesis & metabolism
Biotin
Name the vitamin involved in:

-TCA cycle
-fat synthesis & metabolism
Pantothenic acid
Name the vitamin involved in:

-hydroxylation of proline
Vitamin C
Name the vitamin involve in:

-carboxylation
Vitamin K
Which vitamins are involved in the process of glycolysis?
B1
B3
Biotin
Which vitamins are involved in the TCA cycle?
B1
B2
B3
Pantothenic acid
Which vitamins are involve in the Electron transport chain?
B2
B3
Name the mineral involved:

-protein metabolism
-hormone synthesis
-iron utilization
Copper
Name the mineral involved:

-enzyme function
-carbohydrate metabolism
Manganese
Name the mineral involved:

-ATP component
Phosphorous
Name the mineral involved:

-acid-base balance
Sulfur
Name the minerals involved:

-enzymatic function
manganese
molybdenum
zinc
Name the biological function of:

-Enzymes
catalyze reaction
Name the biological function of:

-transport proteins
enzymes
Name the biological function of:

-nutrition
metabolism
Name the biological function of:

-antibodies
defense
Name the biological function of:

-actin/myosin
contracility
Name the biological function of:

-hormones
Regulation
Name the type of amino acid:

-amino acid complement
-animal proteins
-all essentials
Complete
Name the type of amino acid:

-veggie proteins (missing essentials)
Incomplete
Name the 10 Essential Amino Acids/
"PVT TIM HALL"

Phenylalanine
Valine
Tryptophan
Threonine
Isoleucine
Methionine
Histidine
Arganine
Leucine
Lycine
Name the type of amino acid:

-citrulline
-ornithine
-creatine
-carnitine
Nonpeptide
Which amino acids are NONPOLAR?
Alanine
Valine
Leucine
Which amino acids are AROMATIC?
Phenylalanine
Tryptophan
Threonine
Which amino acids are NONPEPTIDE?
Citruline
Ornithine
Creatinine
Carnitine
Name the sulfur containing amino acids.
Methionine
Cystein
What type of amino acids yield acid-base function groups?
Polar charged amino acids
What are the 2 types of protein structures?
1) Fibrous
-Primary
-Secondary
2) Globular
-Tertiary
-Quarternary
What type of bonds do primary fibrous proteins contain?
Covalent
What type of bonds do secondary fibrous proteins contain?
Hydrogen (alpha helix)
What type of bonds do tertiary globular proteins contain?
Hydrogen & Covalent
What is the definition of a Biological Value (BV)?
nitrogen retained
------------------------
nitrogen absorbed
What is the best source of protein with a biological value of 100?
Egg whites
Sources of Protein?
-dairy products
-meat
-fish
-cow's milk
-rice
-peanut butter
What is the function of an enzyme?
Lowers the activation energy.
Does not change the structure.
Which 2 conditions have an enzymatic incompatability?
1) PKU

2) Fructose intolerance
The concentration of the specific substrate at which a given enzyme yields 1/2 its maximum velocity is termed?
Michaelis-Menton Constant (Km)
As Km ________, affinity _______.
As Km increases, affinity decreases.
How does temperature affect an enzymes function?
Increasing the temperature decreases the enzyme reaction time.
How does pH affect an enzyme?
Optimum pH for proton-donating or proton-accepting
How are enzymes classified?
Classified on the basis of the reaction they catalyze.
How is competitive inhibition of an enzyme reversed?
by increasing substrate concentration
What occurs in competitive inhibition of an enzyme?
binds to the active site, but cannot be transformed by enzyme
What occurs in noncompetitive inhibition of an enzyme?
-binds to site on enzyme other than the substrate binding site

-alters the conformation of the enzyme

-Reversible
What is an organic cofactor required for action of certain enzymes called?
Coenzyme
What is the function of a hormone?
Chemical messengers for tissue activity regulation
Name 4 characteristics of hormones.
1) precursors
2) short-lived
3) exist in low concentrations
4) bind to specific receptors in target cells
Name the 3 types of hormone classifications.
1) peptide
2) amine
3) steroid
Hypothalamus and pituitary hormones are what type of hormone?
Peptide
Androgens and estrogens are what type of hormone?
Steroid
-fat soluble
What type of hormones are water soluble with amino groups?
Amines
Name the hormone:

-stimulates sodium secretion
Aldosterone
Name the hormone:

-inhibits calcium and phosphorous reabsorption in kidneys
-stimulates bone deposition
Calcitonin
Name the hormone:

-stimulates gluconeogenesis
-inhibits inflammatory responses
Cortisol
Name the hormone:

-intracellular messenger activating a lipase
Cyclic AMP
Name the hormone:

-increases blood sugar
-stimulates glycogenolysis
-releases fatty acids from adipose tissue (lipolysis)
-ATP conversion into cAMP
Epinephrine
Name the hormones:

-increases blood sugar
-glycogen breakdown to blood glucose (glycogenolysis)
-release of fatty acids from adipose tissue (lipolysis)
Glucagon
Name the hormone:

-protein synthesis (anabolism)
-fat catabolism and fatty acid release from adipose tissue
Growth Hormone
Name the hormone:

-promotes lipolysis and ketogenesis
-promotes gluconeogenesis
Hydrocortisone
Name the hormone:

-decreases blood sugar
-pancreatic hormone (secreted by beta cells from Islets of Langerhan)
-lipid breakdown
-increases glycogen, fatty acids, triglyceride, and protein synthesis
-decreases cAMP levels
-glucose transport
Insulin
Name the hormone:

-stimulates calcium reabsorption and inhibits phosphate reabsorption in kidneys
-stimulates bone resorption
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Name the hormone:

-regulates insulin secretion
Somatostatin
Name the hormone:

-regulates cell respiration rate
-contributes to proper development and growth
Thyroxine
Name the hormone:

-blood thinners (increase clotting time)
-affect the platelets
Prostaglandins
Where does transcription take place?
Nucleus
Where does translation take place?
Cytoplasm
The synthesis of DNA to RNA is?
transcription
The synthesis of RNA to Protein is?
translation
Where is DNA located?
Nucleus
Function of DNA?
genetic information storage
Name the type of RNA:

-translation
Messenger (mRNA)
Name the type of RNA:

-ribosomal structure and function
Ribosomal (rRNA)
Name the type of RNA:

-combines with mRNA to form anticodon
Transfer (tRNA)
65% of RNA is which type of RNA?
Ribosomal (rRNA)
Name the DNA purines.
1) Adenine
2) Guanine
Name the DNA pyrimidines.
1) Cytosine
2) Thymine
Name the RNA purines.
1) Adenine
2) Guanine
Name the RNA pyrimidines.
1) Cytosine
2) Uracil
Nucleic Acid DNA-DNA matching?
G-C
A-T
Nucleic Acid DNA-RNA matching?
G-C
A-U
T-A
What 3 things are synthesized in the Golgi Apparatus?
1) Glycolipids
2) Glycoproteins
3) Lipoproteins
What 5 intracellular events occur within the mitochondrial MATRIX?
"PUTt GolF in the matrix"

Pyruvate dehydrogenase syst.
Urea cycle (portion)
TCA
Gluconeogenesis (portion)
Fatty Acid oxidation
What 6 intracellular events occur within the cytosol of a cell?
Fatty acid synthesis
Glycoysis
Gluconeogenesis (portion)
HMP Shunt
Protein Synthesis
Urea cycle (portion)
What intracellular event occurs within the inner membrane of the mitochondria?
Electron Transport Chain
-primarily impermeable