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abdomen
The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the chest and the pelvis. It is separated anatomically from the chest by the diaphragm, the powerful muscle spanning the body cavity below the lungs.
Abdomen: The belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the chest and the pelvis. The abdomen is separated anatomically from the chest by the diaphragm, the powerful muscle spanning the body cavity below the lungs.

The abdomen includes a host of organs including the stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, appendix, gallbladder, and bladder.

The word "abdomen" has a curious story behind it. It comes from the Latin "abdodere", to hide. The idea was that whatever was eaten was hidden in the abdomen.

pelvis
The lower part of the abdomen located between the hip bones.
Pelvis: The lower part of the abdomen located between the hip bones.

diaphragm (thoracic)
A shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. Separates the thoracic cavity (with lung and heart) from the abdominal cavity (with liver, stomach, intestines, etc.). In its relaxed state, it is shaped like a dome. It is controlled by the phrenic nerve.
In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. The diaphragm separates the thoracic cavity (with lung and heart) from the abdominal cavity (with liver, stomach, intestines, etc.). In its relaxed state, the diaphragm is shaped like a dome. It is controlled by the phrenic nerve.

In order to avoid confusion with other types of diaphragm, it is sometimes referred to as the thoracic diaphragm. Any reference to the diaphragm is understood to refer to this structure.

lungs
A pair of breathing organs located with the chest which remove carbon dioxide from and bring oxygen to the blood. There is a right and left.
Lungs: The lungs are a pair of breathing organs located with the chest which remove carbon dioxide from and bring oxygen to the blood. There is a right and left lung.
stomach
The sac-shaped digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upper part connects to the esophagus, and the lower part leads into the small intestine.
Stomach: 1. The sac-shaped digestive organ that is located in the upper abdomen, under the ribs. The upper part of the stomach connects to the esophagus, and the lower part leads into the small intestine.

When food enters the stomach, muscles in the stomach wall create a rippling motion (peristalsis) that mixes and mashes the food. At the same time, juices made by glands in the lining of the stomach help digest the food. After about 3 hours, the food becomes a liquid and moves into the small intestine, where digestion continues.

2. The belly or abdomen. A big stomach is not associated with a jolly temperament as much as with an increased risk of heart attacks.

Small intestine
The part of the digestive tract that extends from the stomach to the large intestine.
Small intestine: The part of the digestive tract that extends from the stomach to the large intestine.

colon
The part of the large intestine that runs from the cecum to the rectum as a long hollow tube that serves to remove water from digested food and let the remaining material, solid waste called stool, move through it to the rectum and leave the body through the anus. .
Colon: The part of the large intestine that runs from the cecum to the rectum as a long hollow tube that serves to remove water from digested food and let the remaining material, solid waste called stool, move through it to the rectum and leave the body through the anus. .

The colon measures about 5 ft (1.5 m) in length. It goes up (the ascending colon) on the right side of the abdomen, across the abdomen (the transverse colon) beneath the stomach, and then down (the descending colon) on the left side of the abdomen and makes a sharp turn in the left lower portion (the sigmoid colon) to merge with the rectum.

The colon is sometimes inaccurately called the large intestine or large bowel. It is only a part of the large intestine/bowel. The confusion may have arisen because the word "colon" came from "kolon" which to the ancient Greeks meant the large intestine.

rectum
The last 6 to 8 inches of the large intestine. Stores solid waste until it leaves the body through the anus.
Rectum: The last 6 to 8 inches of the large intestine. The rectum stores solid waste until it leaves the body through the anus. The word rectum comes from the Latin rectus meaning straight (which the human rectum is not).

liver
An organ in the upper abdomen that aids in digestion and removes waste products and worn-out cells from the blood. The largest solid organ in the body. It weighs about three and a half pounds
Liver: An organ in the upper abdomen that aids in digestion and removes waste products and worn-out cells from the blood. The liver is the largest solid organ in the body. The liver weighs about three and a half pounds (1.6 kilograms). It measures about 8 inches (20 cm) horizontally (across) and 6.5 inches (17 cm) vertically (down) and is 4.5 inches (12 cm) thick.
The liver has a multitude of important and complex functions. Some of these functions are to:

Manufacture (synthesize) proteins, including albumin (to help maintain the volume of blood) and blood clotting factors
Synthesize, store, and process (metabolize) fats, including fatty acids (used for energy) and cholesterol
Metabolize and store carbohydrates, which are used as the source for the sugar (glucose) in blood that red blood cells and the brain use
Form and secrete bile that contains bile acids to aid in the intestinal absorption (taking in) of fats and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.
Eliminate, by metabolizing and/or secreting, the potentially harmful biochemical products produced by the body, such as bilirubin from the breakdown of old red blood cells and ammonia from the breakdown of proteins
Detoxify, by metabolizing and/or secreting, drugs, alcohol, and environmental toxins

spleen
An organ located in the upper left part of the abdomen near the stomach. Produces lymphocytes; it is the largest lymphatic organ in the body. Also filters the blood, serves as a major reservoir for blood and destroys blood cells that are aged.
Spleen: An organ located in the upper left part of the abdomen near the stomach. The spleen produces lymphocytes; it is the largest lymphatic organ in the body. The spleen also filters the blood, serves as a major reservoir for blood and destroys blood cells that are aged.

pancreas
A fish-shaped spongy grayish-pink organ about 6 inches (15 cm) long that stretches across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach.
Pancreas: A fish-shaped spongy grayish-pink organ about 6 inches (15 cm) long that stretches across the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach. The head of the pancreas is on the right side of the abdomen and is connected to the duodenum (the first section of the small intestine). The narrow end of the pancreas, called the tail, extends to the left side of the body.

The pancreas makes pancreatic juices and hormones, including insulin. The pancreatic juices are enzymes that help digest food in the small intestine. Insulin controls the amount of sugar in the blood.

As pancreatic juices are made, they flow into the main pancreatic duct. This duct joins the common bile duct, which connects the pancreas to the liver and the gallbladder. The common bile duct, which carries bile (a fluid that helps digest fat), connects to the small intestine near the stomach.

The pancreas is thus a compound gland. It is "compound" in the sense that it is composed of both exocrine and endocrine tissues. The exocrine function of the pancreas involves the synthesis and secretion of pancreatic juices. The endocrine function resides in the million or so cellular islands (the islets of Langerhans) embedded between the exocrine units of the pancreas. Beta cells of the islands secrete insulin, which helps control carbohydrate metabolism. Alpha cells of the islets secrete glucagon that counters the action of insulin.

kidney
One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen which clear "poisons" from the blood, regulate acid concentration and maintain water balance in the body by excreting urine. Part of the urinary tract.
Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen which clear "poisons" from the blood, regulate acid concentration and maintain water balance in the body by excreting urine. The kidneys are part of the urinary tract. The urine then passes through connecting tubes called "ureters" into the bladder. The bladder stores the urine until it is released during urination.

The kidneys remove waste products from the blood and produce urine. As blood flows through the kidneys, they filter waste products, chemicals, and unneeded water from the blood. Urine collects in the middle of each kidney, an area called the renal pelvis. Urine then drains from the kidney through a long tube, the ureter, to the bladder, where it is stored.

The kidneys also make substances that help control blood pressure and regulate the formation of red blood cells.

appendix
A small outpouching from the beginning of the large intestine (the ascending colon). Formally called the vermiform appendix because it was thought to be wormlike.
Appendix: A small outpouching from the beginning of the large intestine (the ascending colon). Formally called the vermiform appendix because it was thought to be wormlike.

gallbladder
A pear-shaped organ just below the liver that stores the bile secreted by the liver.
Gallbladder: A pear-shaped organ just below the liver that stores the bile secreted by the liver. During a fatty meal, the gallbladder contracts, delivering the bile through the bile ducts into the intestines to help with digestion. Abnormal composition of bile leads to formation of gallstones, a process termed cholelithiasis. The gallstones cause cholecystitis, inflammation of the gallbladder.

bladder
Any pouch or other flexible enclosure that can hold liquids or gases but usually refers to the hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine.
Bladder: Any pouch or other flexible enclosure that can hold liquids or gases but usually refers to the hollow organ in the lower abdomen that stores urine -- the urinary bladder. The kidneys filter waste from the blood and produce urine, which enters the bladder through two tubes called ureters. Urine leaves the bladder through another tube, the urethra. In women, the urethra is a short tube that opens just in front of the vagina. In men, it is longer, passing through the prostate gland and then the penis. Infection of the bladder is called cystitis.

abdominal
Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the chest and the pelvis.
Abdominal: Relating to the abdomen, the belly, that part of the body that contains all of the structures between the chest and the pelvis. The abdomen is separated anatomically from the chest by the diaphragm, the powerful muscle spanning the body cavity below the lungs.

The abdomen includes a host of organs including the stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, appendix, gallbladder, and bladder.

The word "abdomen" has a curious story behind it. It comes from the Latin "abdodere", to hide. The idea was that whatever was eaten was hidden in the abdomen.

anterior
The front, as opposed to the posterior.
Anterior: The front, as opposed to the posterior. The anterior surface of the heart is toward the breast bone (the sternum).

brachial plexus
A network of spinal nerves that originates in the back of the neck, extends through the axilla (armpit), and gives rise to nerves to the upper limb. It is formed by the union of portions of the fifth through eighth cervical nerves and the first thoracic nerve, all of which come from the spinal cord.
Brachial plexus: A network of spinal nerves that originates in the back of the neck, extends through the axilla (armpit), and gives rise to nerves to the upper limb. The brachial plexus is formed by the union of portions of the fifth through eighth cervical nerves and the first thoracic nerve, all of which come from the spinal cord.

Injuries to the brachial plexus affect the nerves supplying the shoulder, upper arm, forearm and hand, causing numbness, tingling, pain, weakness, limited movement, or even paralysis of the upper limb. Although injuries can occur at any time, many brachial plexus injuries happen during birth. The baby's shoulders may become impacted during the birth process, causing the brachial plexus nerves to stretch or tear.

There are four types of brachial plexus injuries:

Avulsion, the most severe type, in which the nerve is torn from the spine;
Rupture, in which the nerve is torn but not at the spinal attachment;
Neuroma, in which the nerve has tried to heal itself but scar tissue has grown around the injury, putting pressure on the injured nerve and preventing the nerve from conducting signals to the muscles; and
Neurapraxia or stretch, in which the nerve has been damaged but not torn. Neurapraxia is the most common type of brachial plexus injury.
Treatment depends on the site and type of injury to the brachial plexus and may includes occupational and physical therapy and, in some cases, surgery. Certain brachial plexus injuries heal on their own. Children may improve or recover by 3 to 4 months of age.

The prognosis similarly depends on the site and type of brachial plexus injury determine the prognosis. For avulsion and rupture injuries there is no potential for recovery unless surgical reconnection is made in a timely manner. For neuroma and neurapraxia injuries the potential for recovery varies. Most patients with neurapraxia injuries recover spontaneously with a 90-100% return of function.

prognosis
1. The expected course of a disease.
2. The patient's chance of recovery.
Predicts the outcome of a disease and therefore the future for the patient.
Prognosis: 1. The expected course of a disease.
2. The patient's chance of recovery.
The prognosis predicts the outcome of a disease and therefore the future for the patient. His prognosis is grim, for example, while hers is good.

The word prognosis comes from the Greek prognostikos (of knowledge beforehand). It combines pro (before) and gnosis (a knowing). Hippocrates used the word prognosis, much as we do today, to mean a foretelling of the course of a disease.

buccal mucosa
The inner lining of the cheeks and lips.
Buccal mucosa: The inner lining of the cheeks and lips.
Hippocrates
Great Greek physician on the Mediterranean island of Cos, who founded a medical school there, and is regarded as the "Father of Medicine."
Hippocrates: (c.460-377BC) Great Greek physician on the Mediterranean island of Cos, who founded a medical school there, and is regarded as the "Father of Medicine." That is the standard view of Hippocrates. But, in truth, virtually nothing is known of the first physician named Hippocrates. There are considered to have been several by that name, all of them teachers at the famous medical school on the island of Cos. It was in the 5th century BCE, however, that Hippocrates' name and image began to emerge as a leader in medical research and thought.

Hippocrates is generally credited with turning away from divine notions of medicine and using observation of the body as a basis for medical knowledge. Prayers and sacrifices to the gods did not hold a central place in his theories, but changes in diet, beneficial drugs, and keeping the body "in balance" were the key.

Central to his physiology and ideas on illness was the humoral theory of health, whereby the four bodily fluids, or humors, of blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile needed to be kept in balance. Illness was caused when these fluids became out of balance, sometimes requiring the reduction in the body of a humor through bloodletting or purging.

The Hippocratic Corpus, or the collected writings attributed to Hippocrates, contains about sixty works on a variety of medical topics, including diagnosis, epidemics, obstetrics, pediatrics, nutrition, and surgery. There are assumed to be several authors, however, probably scattered over several centuries, and different treatises often give contradictory advice.

Hippocrates' followers wrote over 60 medical books on a broad range of medical topics (including diseases, gynecology, and head wounds). As to the Hippocratic Oath, little is known about who wrote it or first used it, but it appears to be more strongly influenced by followers of Pythagoras than Hippocrates and is often estimated to have been written in the 4th century BCE. Over the centuries, it has been rewritten often in order to suit the values of different cultures influenced by Greek medicine. See Hippocratic Oath.

Hippocratic Oath
One of the oldest binding documents in history, the Oath written by Hippocrates is still held sacred by physicians: to treat the ill to the best of one's ability, to preserve a patient's privacy, to teach the secrets of medicine to the next generation, and so on.
Hippocratic Oath: One of the oldest binding documents in history, the Oath written by Hippocrates is still held sacred by physicians: to treat the ill to the best of one's ability, to preserve a patient's privacy, to teach the secrets of medicine to the next generation, and so on.

There are many versions of the Hippocratic Oath. We here present two versions. First, the "classic" version (or more precisely, one translation of the original oath). And then, following it, is presented one of the fine "modern" versions of the Hippocratic Oath.


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Classic Version of the Hippocratic Oath

I swear by Apollo Physician and Asclepius and Hygieia and Panaceia and all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will fulfil according to my ability and judgment this oath and this covenant:

To hold him who has taught me this art as equal to my parents and to live my life in partnership with him, and if he is in need of money to give him a share of mine, and to regard his offspring as equal to my brothers in male lineage and to teach them this art - if they desire to learn it - without fee and covenant; to give a share of precepts and oral instruction and all the other learning to my sons and to the sons of him who has instructed me and to pupils who have signed the covenant and have taken an oath according to the medical law, but no one else.

I will apply dietetic measures for the benefit of the sick according to my ability and judgment; I will keep them from harm and injustice.

I will neither give a deadly drug to anybody who asked for it, nor will I make a suggestion to this effect. Similarly I will not give to a woman an abortive remedy. In purity and holiness I will guard my life and my art.

I will not use the knife, not even on sufferers from stone, but will withdraw in favor of such men as are engaged in this work.

Whatever houses I may visit, I will come for the benefit of the sick, remaining free of all intentional injustice, of all mischief and in particular of sexual relations with both female and male persons, be they free or slaves.

What I may see or hear in the course of the treatment or even outside of the treatment in regard to the life of men, which on no account one must spread abroad, I will keep to myself, holding such things shameful to be spoken about.

If I fulfil this oath and do not violate it, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and art, being honored with fame among all men for all time to come; if I transgress it and swear falsely, may the opposite of all this be my lot.


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A Modern Version of the Hippocratic Oath

I swear to fulfill, to the best of my ability and judgment, this covenant:

I will respect the hard-won scientific gains of those physicians in whose steps I walk, and gladly share such knowledge as is mine with those who are to follow.

I will apply, for the benefit of the sick, all measures which are required, avoiding those twin traps of overtreatment and therapeutic nihilism.

I will remember that there is art to medicine as well as science, and that warmth, sympathy, and understanding may outweigh the surgeon's knife or the chemist's drug.

I will not be ashamed to say "I know not," nor will I fail to call in my colleagues when the skills of another are needed for a patient's recovery.

I will respect the privacy of my patients, for their problems are not disclosed to me that the world may know. Most especially must I tread with care in matters of life and death. If it is given me to save a life, all thanks. But it may also be within my power to take a life; this awesome responsibility must be faced with great humbleness and awareness of my own frailty. Above all, I must not play at God.

I will remember that I do not treat a fever chart, a cancerous growth, but a sick human being, whose illness may affect the person's family and economic stability. My responsibility includes these related problems, if I am to care adequately for the sick.

I will prevent disease whenever I can, for prevention is preferable to cure.

I will remember that I remain a member of society, with special obligations to all my fellow human beings, those sound of mind and body as well as the infirm.

If I do not violate this oath, may I enjoy life and art, respected while I live and remembered with affection thereafter. May I always act so as to preserve the finest traditions of my calling and may I long experience the joy of healing those who seek my help.


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The classical version of the Hippocratic Oath is from the translation from the Greek by Ludwig Edelstein. From The Hippocratic Oath: Text, Translation, and Interpretation, by Ludwig Edelstein. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1943.

The modern version of the Hippocratic Oath was written in 1964 by Louis Lasagna, Dean of the School of Medicine at Tufts University.

patient
A person under health care. The person may be waiting for this care or may be receiving it or may have already received it. There is considerable lack of agreement about the precise meaning of the term.
Patient: A person under health care. The person may be waiting for this care or may be receiving it or may have already received it. There is considerable lack of agreement about the precise meaning of the term "patient."

It is diversely defined as, for examples:

A person who requires medical care.
A person receiving medical or dental care or treatment.
A person under a physician's care for a particular disease or condition.
A person who is waiting for or undergoing medical treatment and care
An individual who is receiving needed professional services that are directed by a licensed practitioner of the healing arts toward maintenance, improvement or protection of health or lessening of illness, disability or pain. (US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services)
A sick, injured or wounded soldier who receives medical care or treatment from medically trained personnel. (US Army Medical Command)
The word "patient" is of interesting origin. It comes from the Latin verb "patior" meaning "to suffer" both in the sense of feeling pain and in the sense of forbearance. Thus, the two uses of the word "patient" -- as a noun denoting "someone who suffers" and as an adjective meaning "to bear with forbearance" -- stem from the same origin. (A patient may be patient or impatient.)

disease
Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs).
Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.
Disease: Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs). Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.

calcaneus
The calcaneus is the heel bone. It is also called the os calcis. The calcaneus is a more or less rectangular bone at the back of the foot.
Calcaneus: The calcaneus is the heel bone. It is also called the os calcis. The calcaneus is a more or less rectangular bone at the back of the foot.

The word "calcaneus" comes from the Latin calx meaning limestone. The heel bone looked like a lump of chalk (to someone). The word "calcium" also comes from calx.

head bones
Head bones: There are 29 bones in the human head. They consist of 8 cranial bones, 14 facial bones, the hyoid bone, and 6 auditory (ear) bones.

The 8 cranial bones are the frontal, 2 parietal, occipital, 2 temporal, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones.
The 14 facial bones are the 2 maxilla, mandible, 2 zygoma, 2 lacrimal, 2 nasal, 2 turbinate, vomer and 2 palate bones.
The hyoid bone is horseshoe-shaped bone at the base of the tongue.
The 6 auditory ossicles (little bones) are the malleus, incus and stapes in each ear.
Head bones: There are 29 bones in the human head. They consist of 8 cranial bones, 14 facial bones, the hyoid bone, and 6 auditory (ear) bones.

The 8 cranial bones are the frontal, 2 parietal, occipital, 2 temporal, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones.
The 14 facial bones are the 2 maxilla, mandible, 2 zygoma, 2 lacrimal, 2 nasal, 2 turbinate, vomer and 2 palate bones.
The hyoid bone is horseshoe-shaped bone at the base of the tongue.
The 6 auditory ossicles (little bones) are the malleus, incus and stapes in each ear.
heart
The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. It is positioned in the chest behind the sternum (breastbone; in front of the trachea, esophagus, and aorta; and above the diaphragm muscle that separates the chest and abdominal cavities.
Heart: The muscle that pumps blood received from veins into arteries throughout the body. It is positioned in the chest behind the sternum (breastbone; in front of the trachea, esophagus, and aorta; and above the diaphragm muscle that separates the chest and abdominal cavities. The normal heart is about the size of a closed fist, and weighs about 10.5 ounces. It is cone-shaped, with the point of the cone pointing down to the left. Two-thirds of the heart lies in the left side of the chest with the balance in the right chest.

The heart is composed of specialized cardiac muscle, and it is four-chambered, with a right atrium and ventricle, and an anatomically separate left atrium and ventricle. The blood flows from the systemic veins into the right atrium, thence to the right ventricle, from which it is pumped to the lungs, then returned into the left atrium, thence to the left ventricle, from which it is driven into the systemic arteries.

The heart is thus functionally composed of two hearts: the right heart and the left heart. The right heart consists of the right atrium, which receives deoxygenated blood from the body, and the right ventricle which pumps it to the lungs under low pressure; and the left heart, consisting of the left atrium, which receives oxygenated blood from the lung, and the left ventricle, which pumps it out to the body under high pressure.
neck
The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constricted part of a bone or organ that joins its parts.
Neck: The part of the body joining the head to the shoulders. Also, any narrow or constricted part of a bone or organ that joins its parts as, for example, the neck of the femur bone.

cervix
The lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb).
Cervix: The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb). The uterus, a hollow, pear-shaped organ, is located in a woman's lower abdomen, between the bladder and the rectum. The cervix forms a canal that opens into the vagina, which leads to the outside of the body.

The word "cervix" comes straight from Latin for "neck".


cell
The basic structural and functional unit in people and all living things. Each is a small container of chemicals and water wrapped in a membrane.
Cell: The basic structural and functional unit in people and all living things. Each cell is a small container of chemicals and water wrapped in a membrane.

Each cell in the human body -- there are 100 trillion cells in each of us -- contains the entire human genome, all the genetic information necessary to build a human being. This information is encoded within the cell nucleus in 6 billion base pairs, subunits of DNA, packaged in 23 pairs of chromosomes, one chromosome in each pair coming from each parent. Each of the 46 human chromosomes contains the DNA for thousands of individual genes, the units of heredity.

There are notable exceptions including the egg and sperm cells (each of which have only 23 chromosomes containing half the usual amount of DNA) and mature red blood cells (which no longer have a nucleus and so lack chromosomes and DNA).

membrane
A very thin layer of tissue that covers a surface.
Membrane: A very thin layer of tissue that covers a surface.

genome
All of the genetic information, the entire genetic complement, all of the hereditary material possessed by an organism.
Genome: All of the genetic information, the entire genetic complement, all of the hereditary material possessed by an organism.

Humans and many other higher animals actually have two genomes, which together make up the total genome:

A chromosomal genome -- inside the nucleus of the cell in the familiar form of chromosomes; and
A mitochondrial genome -- outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm of the cell, usually in the form of one round chromosome (the mitochondrial chromosome).
The historical tendency has been to focus on the human genome somewhat to the exclusion of the genomes of other organisms. This anthropomorphic view of genomics is perhaps understandable but is a narrow view of the world. There are many other genomes including, for example, the:
Arabidopsis thaliana genome (mustard weed)
C. elegans genome (a roundworm)
Drosophila genome (the fruitfly)
H. flu genome (a bacterium)
Mouse genome
Rice genome
Vibrio cholerae genome (cholera bacteria)
Yeast genome
The word genome dates to 1930. It was cobbled from the German Gen, gene + -om (from the Greek soma, body). In the 1990s genome went from being a highly specialized term not even in much usage in genetics to a word that is now in common general currency. As with all revolutions, the Genetics Revolution has ushered in a revolution in words.

skull
A collection of bones which encase the brain and give form to the head and face.
Skull: The skull is a collection of bones which encase the brain and give form to the head and face. The bones of the skull include the following: the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid, zygomatic, maxilla, nasal, vomer, palatine, inferior concha, and mandible.

The early English word "skulle" came from the Nordic words "skal" and "skul" meaning a bowl. It is also thought that the Nordic toast "Skoal!" came from "skal" since ceremonial drinks were served in a bowl (or skull).

cranium
The upper portion of the skull, which protects the brain.
Cranium: The upper portion of the skull, which protects the brain. The bones of the cranium include the frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid, lacrimal, and nasal bones; the concha nasalis; and the vomer.

chest
The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen. Contains the lungs, the heart and part of the aorta.
Chest: The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen. The chest contains the lungs, the heart and part of the aorta. The walls of the chest are supported by the dorsal vertebrae, the ribs, and the sternum.

The chest is also called the thorax.

thorax
The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen that contains the lungs, the heart and part of the aorta.
Thorax: The area of the body located between the neck and the abdomen that contains the lungs, the heart and part of the aorta. The walls of the thorax are supported by the dorsal vertebrae, the ribs, and the sternum. The plural of thorax is thoraxes or thoraces. The thorax is also called the chest.

embryo
The organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation from fertilization to, in humans, the beginning of the third month of pregnancy. After that point in time, it is termed a fetus.
Embryo: The organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation from fertilization to, in humans, the beginning of the third month of pregnancy. After that point in time, it is termed a fetus.

etiology
The study of the causes. For example, of a disorder.
Etiology: The study of the causes. For example, of a disorder.

The word "etiology" is mainly used in medicine, where it is the science that deals with the causes or origin of disease, the factors which produce or predispose toward a certain disease or disorder.

Today in medicine one hears (or reads) that "the etiology is unknown." Translation -- we don't know the cause.

Aetiology is the preferred spelling in some countries, including the UK, whereas "etiology" without an "a" has taken over in the US. The word comes from the Greek "aitia", cause + "logos", discourse.

tissue
A broad term that is applied to any group of cells that perform specific functions.
Tissue: A tissue in medicine is not like a piece of tissue paper. It is a broad term that is applied to any group of cells that perform specific functions. A tissue in medicine need not form a layer. Thus,

The bone marrow is a tissue;
Connective tissue consists of cells that make up fibers in the framework supporting other body tissues; and
Lymphoid tissue is the part of the body's immune system that helps protect it from bacteria and other foreign entities.
Histology
The study of the form of structures seen under the microscope. Also called microscopic anatomy, as opposed to gross anatomy which involves structures that can be observed with the naked eye.
Histology: The study of the form of structures seen under the microscope. Also called microscopic anatomy, as opposed to gross anatomy which involves structures that can be observed with the naked eye. Traditionally, both gross anatomy and histology (microscopic anatomy) have been studied in the first year of medical school in the U.S. The word "anatomy" comes from the Greek ana- meaning up or through + tome meaning a cutting. Anatomy was once a "cutting up" because the structure of the body was originally learned through dissecting it, cutting it up. The word "histology" came from the Greek "histo-" meaning tissue + "logos", treatise. Histology was a treatise about the tissues of the body and the cells thereof.