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14 Cards in this Set

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before, infront of
Anterior: The front, as opposed to the posterior. The anterior surface of the heart is toward the breast bone (the sternum).

anterior, front
Antero-: Prefix signifying before, earlier, front. From the Latin anterior meaning before.

Anterograde: Moving forward or extending forward. Anterograde memory is memory for what occurs after an event such as an accident. Also called antegrade. From the Latin antero- + gredior (to step or go).

Buccal mucosa: The inner lining of the cheeks and lips.

Etiology: The study of the causes. For example, of a disorder.

The word "etiology" is mainly used in medicine, where it is the science that deals with the causes or origin of disease, the factors which produce or predispose toward a certain disease or disorder.

Today in medicine one hears (or reads) that "the etiology is unknown." Translation -- we don't know the cause.

Aetiology is the preferred spelling in some countries, including the UK, whereas "etiology" without an "a" has taken over in the US. The word comes from the Greek "aitia", cause + "logos", discourse.

same, steady
Homeopathy: A system of therapy based on the concept that disease can be treated with drugs (in minute doses) thought capable of producing the same symptoms in healthy people as the disease itself.

Homeotherm: A homeotherm is a warm-blooded animal (such as homo sapiens). Another term for us warm-blooded creatures is endotherm.

Those of us who are homeotherms or endotherms are as opposed to a poikilotherm (an organism such as a frog that is cold-blooded) and a stenotherm (a creature that can only survive only within a very narrow temperature range).

Homeotherm is all Greek. The "homeo-" comes from the Greek "homo" meaning "the same" + "-therm" comes from the Greek "therme" meaning "heat" = the same heat.

lateral, to one side
Lateral: 1. In anatomy, the side of the body or a body part that is farther from the middle or center of the body. Typically, lateral refers to the outer side of the body part, but it is also used to refer to the side of a body part. For example, when referring to the knee, lateral refers to the side of the knee farthest from the opposite knee. The opposite of lateral is medial.
2. In radiology, slang for a lateral X-ray.

Oropharynx: The area of the throat that is at the back of the mouth. The oropharynx is in contrast to the nasopharynx, the part of the throat that lies behind the nose.

body wall or parietal bone
Parietal: Adjective from the Latin "parietalis" meaning "belonging to the wall" that the ancient anatomists used to designate the wall, as of a body cavity.

For examples, there are the:

Parietal bone -- the main side bone of the skull.
Parietal lobe -- the main side lobe of the brain (it is beneath the parietal bone).
Parietal pericardium -- the outer membrane around the heart.
Parietal peritoneum -- the membrane lining the abdominal cavity (as opposed to the visceral peritoneum that envelops the abdominal organs).
Peritoneum: The membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers most of the abdominal organs. (From the Greek peri- meaning around + tonos meaning a stretching = a stretching around).

posterior, at the back
Posterior: The back or behind, as opposed to the anterior.

Posteroanterior: From back to front. A chest x-ray taken with the chest against the film plate and the x-ray machine behind the patient is a posteroanterior (PA) view. As opposed to anteroposterior (AP).

Pubic symphysis: The joint between the pubic bones in the front of the pelvis. Also called the symphysis pubis.

Pubis: The front center portion of the pelvis.

back, backward, behind
Retromingent: Urinating backwards. Also an animal such as a raccoon that urinates backwards. As in: "You have revealed yourself as a miserable, carping, retromingent vigilante, and I for one am sick of wasting my time communicating with you" (Benjamin C. Bradlee, Editor, The Washington Post). From the Latin retro- (back) + mingent from mingere (to urinate).

viscera (internal organs)
Viscera: The internal organs of the body, specifically those within the chest (as the heart or lungs) or abdomen (as the liver, pancreas or intestines).

The singular of "viscera" is "viscus" meaning in Latin "an organ of the body."