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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
where does energy come from to feed a disaster?
visitors from outter space, gravity, internal energy, and the sun.
Where does internal energy come from?
impact energy, gravitational energy, and decay of radioactive elementers.
The process of planet formation created tremendous quantities of heat. Where did the heat come from?
Impact energy, Gravitational energy, and Decay of radioactive elements.
Where does energy from the Sun go?
It is reflected back, absorbed as heat (in the air, sea, and land), and expanded to evaporate water in the hydorlogical cycle.
What are different amounts of radiation called?
insolation
What are the properties of water?
present in 3 states, high heat capacity, gains and loses heat, water is polar, universal solvent, high surface tension, expands when freezes.
How is the rock cycle involved
energy flows moving material throughout the planet.
What are the layers of the earth (outside to inside)
crust, mantle, outter core, and the inner core.
What is pangea?
Super continent that broke apart leaving land masses such as continents, islands, etc.
What are hot spots?
Small areas of high heat below places creating areas of high volcanic activity.
Where are most earthquakes located?
at subduction zones of convergent boundaries.
List three spreading center locations
Mid- Ocean ridge in Iceland, The Red Sea, and the Gulf of Aden.
What is a triple junction?
three boundaries pulling aprt. seas are getting bigger.
What are convergent boundaries?
two plates coming together.
what are the three types of convergent boundaries?
oceanic-oceanic
oceanic-continental
continental-continental
What are divergent boundaries?
tow boundaries pulling apart from each other.how new seas and rift valleys are created.
What are transform faults?
two plates sliding past each other.
what are examples of continental-continental collisions?
India moving northward into the Eurasian plate.
What are examples of transform faults?
Alpine faults of New Zealand, San Andreas Fault in California, and in the North Anatolian fault in Turkey (caused by the Arabian fault).
How are earthquakes produced?
when the earth shakes in response to sudden earth movement. mostly caused by sudden movements along faults.
What is an epicenter?
location on the surface directly above the focus.
What is a hypocenter?
another name for focus, place where earthquake originates.
What is the focus of an earthquake?
the place within Earth where earthquake waves originate.
What are the 3 different types of faults?
dip slip, strike slip, and transform.
what are dip-slip faults?
faults that are dominated by vertical movement, caused by a pulling or pushing force.
where are the hangingwall and footwall located?
the footwall is the floor beneath the miner's feet and the rocks above there heads are wherethe hanging wall is located
what is a normal fault?
when hangingwall moves down relative to footwall.the zone of omission documents extensional forces.
What are reverse faults?
when the hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall. the zone of repetition douments compressional forces.
What are strike-slip faults?
when movement is horizontal parallel to the strike. when straddling the fault the right side moves toward you.
What is siesmology?
the study of earthquakes.
How do we measure earthquakes?
using a seismograph that measures p-waves and s-waves.
What are body waves?
primary or secondary waves
What are P waves?
the fastest waves that are reported first. they travel through any medium and are push-pull waves.
What are S Waves?
they reach the station second. they travel through solids, are reflected back off of rock or converted into another energy form.
What are surface waves?
waves that travel near the surface.
What are the 2 kinds of L waves and what damage do they produce?
Love (goes thoruhg rock like a slinki on the table waves) and Rayleigh (waves are backward rotating) waves.

Love ,
How do you locate an Earthquake?
3 sieismographs,each send their time interval between arrival of their first p and s waves. a travel-time graphy determines the distance of each to the epicenter.
Where do earthquakes occur in the subducting plate and how intense are they?
depths of 5- 700 km. the more shallow the earthquake the more intense for us.
What are different scales to measure earthquakes?
Mercalli: how it feels, damage done.
Rucgter: based on comparison to largest recorded log 10 scale.
Moment Magnitude:relies on amount of movement along fault
what are tsunamis?
casued by submarine landslides, about 400mph, unnoticed at sea but damaging on shore.
what does tsunami damage depend on?
direction of travel, harbor shape and bottom, and tide & weather (together).
where are the largest earthquakes found?
Alaska and Chile
Which plates are subducting to form earthquakes on the west coast of N.A.
the farallon plate and the north american plate, the pacific plate, the Juan de Fuca plate, the Riviera and Cocoa plate.
Why so much damage in the 1985 Mexico City earthquake?
improperly designed buildings, 5,700 buildings damaged and that killed people.