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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
lack or loss of strength
Addison's disease
a destructive disease marked by deficient adrenocortical secretion and characterized by extreme weakness, loss of weight, low blood pressure, gastrointestinal disturbances, and brownish pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
a familial polyposis inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by numerous polyps in the stomach, small intestine, and colon and by melanin-containing spots on the skin and mucous membranes especially of the lips and gums
severe hypothyroidism characterized by firm inelastic edema, dry skin and hair, and loss of mental and physical vigor
a disease of adults that is characterized by softening of the bones and is analogous to rickets in the young
A patient with which of the following diseases is predisposed to develop osteosarcoma?
Paget's disease of bone
To which of the following sites does carcinoma of the prostate metastasize with the greatest frequency
septicemia accompanied by multiple abscesses and secondary toxemic symptoms and caused by pus-forming microorganisms
a chronic disease of unknown cause that is characterized by the formation of nodules resembling true tubercles especially in the lymph nodes, lungs, bones, and skin
Histiocytosis X encompasses all of the following clinical entities
Letterer-Siwe disease.
eosinophilic granuloma.
Hand-Schuller-Christian disease
Gaucher's disease
a rare hereditary disorder of lipid metabolism that is caused by an enzyme deficiency of glucocerebrosidase, that is characterized by enormous enlargement of the spleen, pigmentation of the skin, and bone lesions, and that is marked by the presence of large amounts of glucocerebroside in the cells of the reticuloendothelial system
Letterer-Siwe disease
an acute disease of children characterized by fever, hemorrhages, and other evidences of a disturbance in the reticuloendothelial system and by severe bone lesions especially of the skull
Hand-Schuller-Christian disease
an inflammatory histiocytosis associated with disturbances in cholesterol metabolism that occurs chiefly in young children and is marked by cystic defects of the skull and by exophthalmos and diabetes insipidus
eosinophilic granuloma
disease of adolescents and young adults marked by the formation of granulomas in bone and the presence in them of macrophages and eosinophilic cells with secondary deposition of cholesterol
abnormal multiplication of macrophages
aplastic anemia
anemia that is characterized by defective function of the blood-forming organs (as the bone marrow) and is caused by toxic agents (as chemicals or X-rays) or is idiopathic in origin
primary palate develops as a result of the merger of
two medial nasal processes which are proliferations of mesenchyme at the margins of the nasal placodes which develop on each side of the frontal nasal process
secondary palate develops from
two maxillary processes called the lateral palatine processes.
the two lateral nasal processes form
the sides (alae) of the nose
greater petrosal nerve
br of the facial nerve arises from the geniculate ganglion, this nerve is the parasympathetic root of the pterygopalatine ganglion, carries preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the pterygopalatine ganglion (for the lacrimal glands as well as glands of the palate and nose)
cells found in the seminiferous tubules of the testis
sertoli cells
otic ganglion
parasympa fibers, glossopharyngeal n, its tympanic br, and lesser petrosal n. to parotid gland
pterygopalatine ganglion
para fibers, facial n., greater petrosal n., and nerve of pterygoid canal to lacrimal gland and glands in palate and nose
actinomyces viscosus and naeslundii cause
root-surface caries
if you cut the facial nerve just after it exits from the stylomastoid foramen
it would cause a loss of innervation to the muscles of facial expression
lower motor nuron lesions of the facial nerve will cause
an ipsilatera flaccid paralysis of the facial musculature
facial n. motor innervation
muscles of facial expression, posterior belly of digastric muscle and the stylohyoid ms, stapedius ms
at Vmax
all of the active sites are saturated with substrate
competitive inhibition
is reversed by incresasing substrate, Vmax remains the same, Km is increased
noncompetitive inhibition
is not reversed by increasing substrate, Vmax is decreased, Km is unchanged
the lower the Km,
the higher the affinity
the higher the Km,
the lower the affinity
substrate concentration at 1/2 Vmax
bone formation
bone forms by either endochondrial ossification or intramembranous ossification
bone growth
bone grows by appositional growth (increase girth)
cartilage growth
cartilage grow by interstitial (epiphyseal or articular) or appositional (girth)
lined with stereocilia, cordlike tube in the scrotum, carries sperm from the seminiferous tubules of the testis to the vas deferens
spermatic cord
round ligament of the uterus
which muscle of the anterior abdominal wall listed below helps form the cremaster ms?
internal oblique
enzyme abundant in the liver
glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), aka alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
creatine kinase
first heart enzyme to appear in the blood after a heart attack
indication of liver dz
glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase
indication of myocardial infarction
creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase
is the ultimate electron acceptor and is reduced to water
nonprotein substance (organic cofactor) that combines with an apoenzyme (the protein portion of a complex enzyme) to form a haloenzyme (a complete, catalytically active enzyme system)
a sharp pain in the side usually located in the intercostal muscles and believed to arise from inflammation of fibrous tissue
enteroviruses (RNA non-env virus)
poliovirus, coxsackievirus, echovirus, hepatitis A virus
this family includes enteroviruses and rhinoviruses, small non-env, single-stranded RNA genome
gram +, facultative anaerobic cocci
increased plasma osmolarity increases ADH releases from the posterior pituitary
ADH increases water reabsorption in the collecting duct
which salivary gland produces most saliva
1. submandibular (70%)
2. parotid (20%)
binds iron and is bacteriostatic, salivary gland secretion
what is the most common immune deficiency
IgA deficiency, susceptible to upper respiratory infections
genioglossus ms paralysis
tongue has a tendency to fall back and obstruct the oropharyngeal airway with risk of suffocation
unilateral lesions of the hypoglossal n. result in
the deviation of the protruded tongue towards the affected side, due to lack of fxn of the genioglossus ms on the diseased side
inability to articulate
also called plasmin, proteolytic enz derived from plasminogen, essential in blood clot dissolution (fibrinolysis)
plasma protein essential for the coagulation of blood and is converted to fibrin by thrombin and ionized calcium
a proteolytic enzyme that dissolves the fibrin of blood clots
converts prothrombin to thrombin in presence of calcium ions, thrombin in turn converts fibrinogen to fibrin