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85 Cards in this Set

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Settle to the bottom of the test tube and make up approximately 45% of whole blood

_ settle next followed by _
RBC

White blood cells

Thrombocytes
The layer of leukocytes and thrombocytes together is called _ and makes up 1% of whole blood
Buffy coat
Makes up 54 % of whole blood
Plasma
Plasma consists of 90% _ and 10%
90% water and 10% dissolved substances - proteins, nutrients, metabolites, ions and electrolytes
Difference between plasma and serum
If blood is allowed to clot what is left is serum

If blood is treated with antiocoagulant what is left is plasma
Smallest of the formed elements of blood
Thrombocytes
Largest of the formed elements of blood
Monocyte
Volume of formed elements of blood is measured in _
Femtoliters (10^ -15 L)
The weight of the contents of the blood cells is expressed in _
Picograms
Stable parameter in determning RBC disorders
MCV
Normal MCV
80-95 fL
Normal MCH
26-34 pg
Formula for MCV
HCT/ RBC count
Formula for MCH
Hb/ RBC count
Formula for MCHC
Hb/Hct
Low hematocrit can indicate _
Anemia

Hemorrhage (blood loss)

BM failure

Hemolysis

Malnutrition

RA
High hematocrit can indicate
Dehydration

Erythrocytosis

Polycythemia vera
What is considered tobe isotonic solution
Plasma or 0.85% NaCl
The routine peripheral blood smear is stained with _
Polychrome stain (Romanowsky stain) such as Wright Giemsa
Precursor cells need two things for hematopoiesis _
Cytokines and EPO (erythropoietin)
BM biopsy shows fat cells replacing precursor cells - what is wrong
Aplastic anemia
The average adult body contains _ L of blood
6 liters of blood
What makes plasma cloudy giving it straw color
Fibrinogen
Half life of RBC
60 days
Two closely linked pathways are responsible for glycolysis within mature erythrocyte
Embden Myerhof pathway - 90%

Hexose monophosphate shunt - 10%
Pyruvate kinase defficiency - which glycolytic pathway involved
Embden Meyerhof
G6PD dehydrogenase defficiency - which glycolytic pathway involved
Hexose monophosphate shunt
Hemolytic disorder due to unstable hemoglobin - which glycolytic pathway involved
Methemoglobin reductase
2,3 BPG - which glycolytic pathway involved
Rapport Leubering
Variation in size
Anisocytosis
Variation in shape
Poikilocytosis
RBC's are stacked together in long chains - this is called _

Why does this happen
Rouleaux formation

Increased serum proteins - fibrinogen and globulin
Key structural proteins in RBC cytoskeleton
Spectrin

Ankyrin

Band 3
Defficiency of iron what type of anemia
Microcytic low MCV
B12 and folic acid defficiency - what type of anemia
Macrocytic, high MCV
Most common anemia in US

Most common cause
Fe defficiency

Cause - bleeding
This type of anemia stems from vit B 12 defficiency due to inability to absorb it from intestinal track
Pernicious or megaloblastic anemia
Folate defficiency anemia - what type
Megaloblastic
Which drugs can cause hemolytic anemia
Sulfa drugs

Phenytoin
An enzyme defficiency of RBC which can cause hemolytic anemia
G6PD defficiency
The abnormal hemoglobin is prone to crystaliization when oxygen tension is low - which disease
Sickle cell
Howell Jolly bodies are round purple staining nuclear fragments of DNA in RBC - which disease
Hemolytic anemia, following splenectomy or in cases of splenic atrophy (sickle cell anemia, trauma of spleen, cancer, etc)
Multiple Howell Jolly bodies may be observed in case of _
Megaloblastic anemia
Heinz bodies are observed in _
G6PD defficiency
Bodies consisting of denatured Hb, disease
Heinz bodies - G6PD defficiency
Bodies that are remnants of the nucleus that should have been removed by spleen

Disease?
Howell Jolly bodies

Hemolytic anemia - sickle cell, trauma, cancer
The appearance of poikilocytosis, anisocytosis and RBC inclusions suggests that _
Spleen is not present
Group of anemias due to defects in the genes producing hemoglobin, most often in people of what origin?
Thalassemia - people of Meditteranean origin
Two main types of thalassemia - which chromosome involved
Alpha- chromosome 16

Beta - chromosome 11
If alpha trait of thalassemia inherited from both parents it results in _

If beta trait of thalassemia inherited from both parents it results in _
Death - common in Southeast Asia

Eventually fatal condition called Cooley's anemia (homozygous beta thalassemia) - meditteranean population
Rare disease in which BM doesnt function normally limiting the production of all blood cells including WBC and platelets
Aplastic anemia
Anemias associated with chronic disease
RA

TB

Cancer

Chronic kidney disease
Drug that can cause aplastic anemia
Chloramphenicol
Blood smear shows smaller than normal RBC with increased zone of central pallor - what does patient have, there is also poikilocytosis and anisocytosis
Fe defficiency anemia- hypochromic microcytic anemia
Byproduct of Hb, accumulation leads to jaundice
Billirubin
Increased LDH levels are indicative of _
Hemolysis
Normocytic normochromic anemia - what is most common cause -

Other causes
ACUTE BLOOD LOSS

Marrow damage

renal disease

inflammation

early iron defficiency

Hemorrhagic/hemolytic anemias
Microcytic hypochromic anemia - there is defect in _


3 causes
Defect in nuclear maturation

Causes - Fe defficiency, Thalassemia, Hereditary sideroblastic anemia
Sideroblastic anemia is a disorder of _
Porphyrin
Thalassemia - disorder of _
Globin
Rare enzyme disorder in which body has adequate amount of Fe but is unable to incorporate it into Hb, iron accumulates in mitochondria and Hb production is defective
Sideroblastic anemia
Blood smear is stained with Prussian blue and you observe ringed cells - disease?
Sideroblastic anemia
3 categories of sideroblastic anemia
Inherited

Acquired


idiopathic
Sideroblastic anemia can be induced by _
Alcohol, lead poisoning and drugs
Causes of macrocytic anemia (5)
Vit B12 defficiency - megaloblastic

Folic acid defficienc

Intrinsic marrow disease

Liver disease

Chemotherapy
What type of anemia do you see hypersegmented neutrophils in
Disorders of nuclear maturation - megaloblastic anemia
Atypical white blood cells (mono cells) on blood smear - disease?
Infectious mono Epstein Barr
Causes of acute leukemia
Ionizing radiation

Benzene

Down syndrome

Myeloproliferative diseases

Chemotherapy
Acute leuekmia which occurs primarily in adults
Acute myeloid leukemia
Acute leukemia occurs in children
Acute lymphocytic leukemia
M1 AML
Undifferentiated
M2 AML
Myeloblastic
M3 AML
Promyelocytic
M4 AML
Myelomonocytic
M5 AML
Monocytic
M6 AML
Erythroleukemic
M7 AML
Megakaryocytic
Most frequently occuring form of ALL
L1
ALL type that occurs more frequently in adults
L2
Burkitts lymphoma type of ALL
L3
Philadelphia chromosome is characteristic of what type of leukemia
Chronic myelocytic leukemia
Blood smear shows leukemic promyelocytes with multiple AUER RODS and CYTOPLASMIC INCLUSIONS

What type of leukemia
M3 Acute promyelocytic leukemia
_ stain useful in identifying myeloid blasts
Myeloperoxidase
Leukocytosis is characteristic of what type of leukemia
Chronic
You see smudge or basket cells on blood smear - what type of leukemia
Chronic lymphocytic