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129 Cards in this Set

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movement away from the midline of the body
Abduction
bringing harm toward another. The abuse can be directed toward a child, adult, elderly individual, or an animal. The perpetrator can be any age, and usually is in a position of power (e.g. mother, father, supervisor) and/or care-giving (e.g. pet owner, home aide). Abuse can take many forms.
— neglect: a failure to provide for another’s needs. This can be physical (e.g. failure to provide
medical care or food), developmental (e.g. failure to provide emotional nurturing and cognitive stimulation), educational (failure to provide educational opportunities for a child according to the state’s education laws), or a combination.
—physical: assaults such as hitting, kicking, biting, throwing, and burning in which the other
person/animal is harmed bodily
—physical endangerment: reckless behaviors towards another that could lead to the serious
physical injury, such as leaving an infant alone or placing a child in a hazardous environment
—sexual: non-consensual sexualized contact in which one person is dominated, manipulated or taken advantage of through sexual acts or suggestiveness
—emotional: harming another through use of non-physical means. It can include terrorizing,
demeaning, consistently belittling, withholding warmth; often resulting in the feeling of powerlessness or decreased self-worth
Abuse
the self-care, communication, and mobility skills required for
independence in everyday living. Examples include: grooming, bathing, dressing, using the telephone, preparing meals, cleaning house, taking medicines, doing laundry, handling finances, getting to the bus stop, and shopping at the grocery.
Activities of Daily Living (ADL’s)
the effectiveness with which a person deals with the natural and social demands of his environment
Adaptive Behavior
movement toward the midline of the body
Adduction
an objective manifestation, such as a facial expression, of an experience or emotion. The
observations one would make on assessment. For example, a client may be said to have a flat affect,
meaning that there is an absence or a near absence of facial expression when there is an experience or emotion that would indicate otherwise.The term has been used loosely to mean a feeling, emotion, or mood.
Affect
loss of the ability to recognize familiar objects. For example, a person may be unable to
identify familiar sounds, such as the ringing of a doorbell (auditory agnosia), or familiar objects, such as a toothbrush or keys (visual agnosia).
Agnosia
loss of a previous ability to write, resulting from brain injury or brain disease
Agraphia
motor restlessness, muscular quivering with an urge to move about constantly and an
inability to sit still, or an inability to sit down because of intense anxiety at the thought of doing so; a common side effect of neuroleptic drugs.
Akathisia
absence or diminution of voluntary motion. Akinesia can be accompanied by a parallel
reduction in mental activity.
Akinesia
lack of energy; passivity
Anergia
the inability to experience pleasure
Anhedonia
(Ventral) front of body
Anterior
loss of language ability due to dysfunction in the brain; may consist of a loss of receptive
ability (decreased ability to understand language); expressive ability (an inability to express one’s thoughts); or a combination
Aphasia
interruption of normal breathing which can be caused by medications or by physical blockage of the airway
Apnea
inability to perform a skilled motor activity, not related to paralysis or lack of comprehension,
but caused by a brain lesion. For example, a person may be unable to shave, to dress, or to do other previously learned and purposeful tasks.
Apraxia
difference between sides which would typically be similar, i.e. a difference found between the left and right sides of the body
Asymmetrical
muscular in-coordination manifested especially when voluntary muscular movements are attempted
Ataxia
a condition wherein there are slow irregular twisting, snake-like muscular movements seen
mostly in the upper extremities, especially in hands and fingers
Athetosis
a subjective sensation (as of voices, colored lights or crawling and numbness) experienced
before an attack of some nervous disorders (as epilepsy or migraine)
Aura
a treatment that focuses on modifying and changing specific observable patterns of behavior by means of stimulus-and-response conditioning. Examples of behavioral therapy techniques include operant conditioning, token economy, systematic desensitization, aversion therapy,
and flooding.
Behavior modification
having to do with both sides of the body.
Bilateral
a sudden obstruction or interruption in the spontaneous flow of thinking or speaking that is perceived as an absence or deprivation of thought
Blocking
one’s internalized sense of the physical self
Body image
brain and spinal cord
Central nervous system
refers to the long axis of the human body in a direction from head to tail
Cephalocaudal
a congenital condition consisting of three major structural abnormalities of
the lower brain
Chiari II malformation
circular movement, as with a joint
Circumduction
maladaptive coping behaviors that prevent individuals from taking care of their own needs and have as their core a preoccupation with the thoughts and feelings of another or others. It usually refers to the dependence of one person on another person who is addicted.
Codependent
the act, process, or result of knowing, learning or understanding
Cognition
repetitive, purposeless seeming behaviors performed according to certain rules known only to the person in order to temporarily reduce escalating anxiety
Compulsions
fi lling in a memory gap with a detailed fantasy believed by the teller. This is seen in organic conditions such as Korsakoff’s syndrome and brain injury.
Confabulation
the ethical responsibility of a health care professional, a teacher, or an instructor that prohibits the disclosure of privileged information without a person’s informed consent
Confidentiality
existing from birth
Congenital
a condition of fi xed resistance to passive stretch of a muscle resulting in limitation of
range of motion of a joint. This condition is due to shortening of muscles, tendons and/or ligaments
around joints.
Contracture
ways of adjusting to environmental stress without altering one’s goals or
purposes; includes both conscious and unconscious mechanisms
Coping mechanism
a skin lesion caused by prolonged pressure to an area of the body, especially over bony prominences
Decubitus ulcer
a phenomenon whereby a person experiences a sense of unreality or selfestrangement.
For example, one may feel that one’s extremities have changed, that one is seeing oneself
from a distance, or that one is in a dream.
Depersonalization
an interpersonal and interpersonal disassociation from affective expression. Therefore, individuals appear cold, aloof, and distant. This behavior is thought to be learned and is viewed as defensive.
Detachment
a disability produced by disease or injury interrupting normal
developmental sequence
Developmental Disability
a gradual change from a lower to higher behavioral state; an established
pattern of growth and development in human beings
Developmental Sequence
weakness of the lower body to a greater extent than the upper body
Diplegia
transfer of emotions associated with a particular person, object, or situation to another
person, object, or situation that is nonthreatening
Displacement
farthest from trunk (e.g. hand is distal to elbow)
Distal
inability to maintain attention, shifting from one area or topic to another with minimal
provocation
Distractibility
bending the ankle up (toes up)
Dorsiflexion
the existence of two, possibly unrelated, primary diagnoses. Ideally, in treatment, both diagnoses should be addressed. For instance, someone may have two separate physical disabilities
(e.g. diabetes and spinal cord injury), or, someone with a physical disability may also have a psychiatric or mental health disorder (e.g. bipolar disorder and spina bifi da). A substance abuse disorder may accompany a physical or a psychiatric diagnosis.
Dual Diagnosis
involuntary muscular activity, such as tic or spasm. The impairment of the power of voluntary movement, resulting in fragmentary or incomplete movements.
Dyskinesia
an impairment of control of muscle tone. May be an acute side effect of neuroleptic (antipsychotic) medication or a symptom of neurologic dysfunction.
Dystonia
an involuntary repetition or imitation of sounds or words
Echolalia
swelling; an unusual accumulation of fluid
Edema
self-centered
Egocentric
the ability of one person to see things from another person’s perspective and to
communicate this understanding to the other person
Empathy
helping a dependent individual avoid experiencing the consequences of his or her addiction. It is one component of a person in a co-dependency role.
Enabling
a state of balance; a condition in which opposing forces exactly counteract each other
Equilibrium
turning the foot out (e.g. duck feet)
Eversion
to straighten the body or a joint
Extension
to rotate outward away from the body’s midline
External Rotation
a gradual withdrawal of support or assistance when training a new skill
Fading
those individuals who make up the family unit and contribute to the functional state of the family unit
Family System
the body’s physiological response to fear or rage that triggers the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system as well as the endocrine system. This response is useful in emergencies; however, a sustained response can result in pathophysiological changes such as high blood pressure, ulcers, cardiac problems, and more.
Fight-or-Flight Response (Sympathetic Response)
hypotension of muscles; relaxed, floppy, having decreased or absent muscle tone
Flaccid
to bend the body or a joint
Flexion
interaction continually taking place between members of a group
Group Process
weakness of one side of the body, left or right
Hemiplegia
an excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain which may result in
enlargement of the head
Hydrocephalus
movement of any joint beyond the joint’s normal position
Hyperextension
movement beyond what is normally expected
Hypermobility
high muscle tone, a state of greater than normal muscle tension, or incomplete relaxation
Hypertonic
excessive preoccupation with one’s physical health, without any organic pathology
being present
Hypochondriasis
low muscle tone, a state of lower than normal muscle tension
Hypotonic
arising spontaneously or from an obscure or unknown cause
Idiopathic
an action that is abrupt, unplanned, and directed toward immediate gratification. Often,
safety is jeopardized.
Impulsiveness
inability to control bowel and/or bladder function
Incontinence
the use of thinking and talking to avoid emotions and closeness
Intellectualization
to rotate inward toward the body’s midline
Internal Rotation
turning the foot in (e.g. pigeon toed)
Inversion
having rapidly shifting emotions; unstable
Labile
side away from the center of the body
Lateral
movement of the head and/or trunk sideways, away from the midline of the body
Lateral Flexion
the reasonable and rational setting of parameters for client behavior that provide control and safety
Limit Setting
purposeful behavior directed at getting needs met. Manipulation is maladaptive when:
1) It is the primary method used for getting needs met;
2) the needs, goals, and feelings of others are disregarded; and
3) others are treated as objects in order to fulfill the needs of the manipulator.
Manipulation
toward the center of the body
Medial
a very slight injury or lesion
Microtrauma
imaginary straight line through the center of the body from head to toe
Midline
weakness of one extremity
Monoplegia
condition in which a muscle is in a state of readiness to contract without excess slack or
shortening; the resistance of muscles to passively stretch or move
Muscle Tone
to close up or block off
Occlude
sudden, overwhelming anxiety of such intensity that it produces disorganization of the
personality, loss of rational thought, and inability to communicate, along with specific physiological changes
Panic
temporary or permanent complete loss of movement
Paralysis
weakness of both lower extremities
Paraplegia
partial or incomplete paralysis
Paresis
indirect expression of anger. Behavior may seem passive but is
motivated by unconscious anger, often triggering anger and frustration in others. Examples of passiveaggressive behavior include lateness, forgetting, ‘mistakes’, and obtuseness.
Passive Aggressive Behavior
conscious mental registration of sensory stimuli. Disturbance of perception is an inability
to register and interpret sensory stimuli based on past experiences.
Perception
in the extremities, such as peripheral arteries, peripheral nerves
Peripheral
the involuntary repetition of the same thought, phrase, or motor response (e.g., brushing teeth, walking); associated with brain damage
Perseveration
bending the ankle down (toes down)
Plantar Flexion
(dorsal) back side of body
Posterior
body position in which the body is aligned in the position of least strain and maximum
support
Posture
turning inward, pronation of the hand would be turning of the palms downward
Pronation
position of the body face down, or lying on the stomach
Prone
joint position sense, awareness of the angle of a joint
Proprioception
position of a body segment forward of other segments, such as protraction of the shoulder is movement of the shoulder forward
Protraction
nearest to trunk (e.g. shoulder is proximal to elbow)
Proximal
a term describing the interaction of the mind (psyche) and body (soma). The term is used in reference to certain diseases thought to be caused by psychological factors.
Psychosomatic
a treatment modality based on the development of a trusting relationship between client and therapist for the purpose of exploring and modifying the client’s behavior and feelings in a satisfying direction
Psychotherapy
weakness of all extremities
Quadriplegia
the degree of free, unrestricted motion found in each joint in the body
Range of Motion
involuntary response to a stimulus either sensory or positional; reflexes are specific, predictable, usually purposeful and adaptive
Reflexes
movement of a segment of the body behind another segment, such as retraction of the
shoulder is movement of the shoulder backwards
Retraction
tenseness, stiffness, inability to bend or be bent; lesion in cerebellum
Rigidity
repetitive actions that people must do over and over until they are exhausted or anxiety is decreased; often done to lessen the anxiety triggered by an obsession
Rituals
a technique used in group or family therapy in which a member acts out the behavior of another member in order to increase the other member’s ability to see a situation from another point of view
Role-Playing
a member of a group or family who becomes the target of aggression from others but who may not be the actual cause of hostility or frustration
Scapegoat
a person’s image of self
Self-Concept
feelings individuals have about their worth and value
Self-Esteem
skill and performance in development and coordination of sensory input, motor input and sensory feedback
Sensory Integration
through a series of successive approximations, a new response pattern is shaped and
developed
Shaping
the expression of psychological stress through physical symptoms
Somatization
increased tension of muscles causing stiff and awkward movements. The degree of stiffness
is velocity dependent; the more quickly a muscle is stretched, the stiffer it becomes.
Spasticity
partially dislocated
Sublux(at)ed
progressing by small steps closer and closer to a goal; the learner comes
to approximate the final response through a series of successive steps
Successive Approximation
turning a segment outward, supination of the hand is turning the palm up
Supination
position of the body lying fl at on the back
Supine
the conscious putting off of awareness of disturbing situation or feelings; the only defense mechanism that operates on a conscious level
Suppression
weakness of three extremities.
Triplegia
a clot of blood formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its
place of origin
Thrombus/Thrombosis
an abnormal and more-or-less fixed lateral flexion of the neck associated with muscular contracture
Torticollis
affecting or occurring on only one side of the body
Unilateral