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51 Cards in this Set

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Nagy Biology

CH 21
Cut and Study
What are characteristics of the structure of Escherichia Coli?
rigid cell wall
flagella
pili
What do bacterial cells lace?
cell nucleus
What did the biologist Wendell Stanley find about the purified virus in his 1935 investigation of the tobacco mosaic virus?
the purified virus was a crystal that could infect healthy tobacco plants
What is each particle of TMV made of?
RNA and proteins
What is one difference between bacteria and eukaryotes?
bacterial chromosomes are circular, while eukaryotic chromosomes are linear
How can HIV be transmitted?
1. through sexual contact
2.through the sharing of nonsterile needles
3. to infants during pregnancy or through breast milk
When you see Polyhedral virus, this refers to the structure of a virus's _________?
capsid
What do mining companies use when harvesting copper or uranium?
chemoautotrophic bacteria
In a process called nitrification, chemoautrophic bacteria that live in the soil play an important role in oxidizing ammonia into _____________?
nitrate
What is Tuberculosis the disease of?chemoautrophic
the lungs
What is one way bacteria cause disease?
by metabolizing their hosts
What are diseases that ARE transmitted through contaminated water?
cholera
dysentery
typhoid fever
A host chromosome withy a viral gene inserted into it
provirus
proteins with carbohydrate molecules attached
glycoproteins
a drug that interferes with the life processes in bacteria
antibiotic
a rod-shaped bacterial cell
bacillus
bacteria that feed on organic material formed by other organisms
heterotrophic bacteria
a spiral-shaped bacterial cell
spirillum
a thick wall formed around the chromosomes of some bacteria in times of environmental stress
endospore
a spiral-shaped bacterial cell
spirillum
a virus's protein coat
capsid
a thick wall formed around the chromosomes of some bacteria in times of environmental stress
endospore
a cycle in which the viral genome replicates without destroying the host cell
lysogenic cycle
a virus's protein coat
capsid
a bacteria-infecting virus
bacteriophage
a cycle in which the viral genome replicates without destroying the host cell
conjugation
a bacteria-infecting virus
bacteriophage
a cycle of viral infection, replication, and cell destruction
lytic cycle
a process in which two organisms exchange genetic material
conjugation
a round bacterial cell
coccus
an agent that causes disease
pathogen
surrounds the capsid of many viruses and helps them enter cells
envelope
a cycle of viral infection, replication, and cell destruction
lytic cycle
a process in which two organisms exchange genetic material
conjugation
a round bacterial cell
coccus
an agent that causes disease
pathogen
surrounds the capsid of many viruses and helps them enter cells
envelope
the gel-like layer outside of the cell wall of many bacteria
capsule
A(n) ___________is a segment of nucleic acids contained in a protein coat.
virus
Viruses must rely on ______ ________ for replication.
host cells
The capsid of viruses may enclose either the nucleic acid ______ or the nucleic acid------.
DNA RNA
Infectious particles called _______are composed of proteins and have no nucleic acid.
prions
HIV gradually infects and destroys so many _______ cells that people with AIDS often die of infections that a healthy immune system would normally resist.
immune
The _________ of E.coli have two main functions: to adhere to surfaces and to join bacterial cells prior to conjugation.
pili
Be able to label the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),
See your notes.
The structure labeled A is derived from the membrane of the _____ ______.
host cell
The structure labeled B is a(n) __________.
envelope
In the presence of hydrogen-rich chemicals, __________bacteria can manufacture all of their own amino acids and proteins.
chemoautotrophic
______________, such as penicillin, work by interfering with different cellular processes of bacteria.
Antibiotics
______________, such as penicillin, work by interfering with different cellular processes of bacteria.
Antibiotics