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18 Cards in this Set

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Holocene
modern era of climate- post 10,000 BP
primary forest efficiency hypothesis
1958, joseph campbell: holocene in the east is a period of increasingly specialized adaptation to specific regional environments
problems with PFE Hypothesis
1. climate and environment not stable throughout the archaic
2. specialized adaptations start much earlier than this; ie, 10,000 BP Dalton culture
3. specific regional traditions develop as early as early archaic (9000 BP)
[very complex environment]
Holocene archaeology now
period of highly flexible foragers capable of rapid adaptations to changing environments through cultural, social, and technological responses
what are the results of population packing, 7000-2000 BP?
smaller range of group movement, new boundaries, reliance on local stone= decline in quality of tools and prestige goods, processing of seeds for lack of easier to use food sources
earthwork constructions begin as early as...
5000 to 3000 BP
archaic period
not so much a distinct period as another phase at root of woodland culture (2500-1000 BP).
woodland period hallmarks
mound building, social ranking, pottery, native horticulture, trade of prestige goods

[all began thousands of yrs earlier in the archaic]
results of buried floodplains, caves, rockshelters?
favorable geologic conditions for site burial result in many detailed sequences of archaic culture change
eastern archaic impact on the natural environment
1. regular forest clearing and burning by 9000 BP reduces underbrush and encourages edible forbs and grasses
2. placement of fish weirs and traps in rivers and streams
3. over harvesting of many animal species (deer, mussels, passenger pigeons)
trends in the eastern archaic
1. entrenching/population packing and reduction in settlement mobility
2. increase in diet breadth and taking lower ranked resources (see binford's "broad spectrum depression")
3. regional diversification in culture
4. increases in interpersonal conflict
5. increased importance of social alliances (ranking and exchange)
results of dietary change in woodland period
lifespan changes from 22 to 40 with broader diet, decreases again as agriculture intensifies
Adena complex
1000 BC- AD 100. ceremonial complex moreso than a culture (transcends tribes), burial mounds in ohio river valley, utilitarian burial goods
woodland period politics
big man organization. long distance trade of prestige goods, exchange networks
woodland period religion
mound building, monumental architecture, open spaces, solar observations, ancestor worship, mortuary rituals. eg adena, hopewell
woodland subsistence
cultivation of native weedy annual seed crops (sunflower, goosefoot, knotweed, marshelder...) shift from oily to starchy seeds for gruels 200-500 AD
hopewell
200bc-ad400. post-adena. southern ohio is "cradle." very localised, havana and scioto, long distance exchange systems, standard symbolism
late woodland
ad 500-900. general decline, loss of trade networks, complex symbols, and mound building. effigy mounds persist in upper midwest. locally self sufficient villages. "little ice age" may be partly responsible. northern flint corn arrives in AD 900.