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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
theoretical perspectives of behavior
cognitive therapist
behavior happens
in a chain
it is sequential
in order to change a problimatic bahavior or symtom
one must change the chain not just the behavior
intervien in several places
to change your behavior...
you must change your behavior
behavioral analysis
assesment and working -hypothosis about the problem are necessary
-diary card and behavioral analysis guide the assessment
steps to behavioral analysis
-vunerability factors
-precipitating events
-Major problem behavior
-concequences environment/self
-chain of behaviors
solution analysis
-Identify different solutions
-Prevention stratagies
-plan for repair (correction overcorrection)
Four change procedures
-Contingency management
-Skills training
-cognitive restructuring
Consequnt driven behaviors
The patient is reinforced for maladaptive behavior or is punished for adaptive behavior
Skills deficit
Patient does not know what to do or how to produce an effective response
Maladaptive thoughts
pt makes interpretations about situations that are inconsistant with the facts of reality
Stimulus driven behavior
A prompting event sets ff an emotional response in the pt that is almost without cognitive awareness
Every response within an interpersonal interaction is a potential form of reinforcement, punishment, or extinction.
This holds true whether intended or not
It is an error in logic to assume that the consequences of behavior necessarily prove intent.
The nurse reinforces target relevant adaptive behaviors.
The nurse extinguishes target relevant maladaptive behaviors.
The nurse uses aversive contingencies when necessary.
Punishment is overused!
Manipulate the Consequences
Find a way to have the behavior provide no relief, support or attention. (Eliminate negative reinforcement)
Get the patient to do something else that is more adaptive to get as much support or more support. (Provide Positive Reinforcement)
Apply some aversive consequence following the maladaptive behavior. (Use Punishment)
Ignore the maladaptive behavior. (Use Extinction)
Reinforcement vs. Reinforcers
2 Kinds of Principles:
The Principle of Reinforcement always is directed toward increasing behavior.
The Principle of Punishment is always directed toward decreasing a behavior
Reinforcement vs. Reinforcers
2 Kinds of Stimuli:
The Aversive stimulus or event called a Negative Reinforcer is applied with the intention of decreasing behavior (punishment).
The Aversive stimulus or event called a Negative Reinforcer is removed with the intention of increasing behavior (reinforcement).
Operant Conditioning
Positive Reinforcement: Increases a behavior by applying a positive reinforcer.
Punishment by application: Decreases a behavior by applying a negative reinforcer.
Operant Conditioning
Punishment by removal: Decreases a behavior by removing a positive reinforcer.
Negative Reinforcement: Increases a behavior by removing a negative reinforcer.
Shaping refers to reinforcing small steps or approximations toward a terminal response rather than reinforcing the terminal response itself.
Extinction is the process of disconnecting the prior relationship between a response and its consequences. E.g. Ignoring a behavior that may have been reinforced previously with attention.”
The Behavioral Deficit Model
The skills taught in DBT:
Core Mindfulness Skills
Interpersonal Effectiveness Skills
Emotion Regulation Skills
Distress Tolerance Skills
Self Management Skills (Cognitive Behavioral Skills)
Observational learning or vicarious learning, also called modeling includes both types of responses, respondents (stimulus driven behaviors) and operants (consequence driven behaviors). In observational learning, and individual observes a model’s behavior but need not engage in overt responses or receive direct consequences. By observing a model, the observer may learn a response without actually performing it.
Core Mindfulness Skills
ParticipatingTaking a non-judgmental stance
focusing on one thing in the moment
being effective
Emotion Regulation Skills
Identifying and labeling emotions
Identifying obstacles to changing emotions
Reducing vulnerability to “Emotion Mind”
Increasing Positive Emotional Events
Increasing Mindfulness to Current Emotions
Taking Opposite Action
Applying Distress Tolerance Techniques
Distress Tolerance Skills
Accept, find meaning for, and tolerate distress.
Perceive one’s environment without putting demands on it to be different
Experience one’s current emotional state without attempting to change it
Observe one’s own thoughts and action patterns without attempting to stop or control them
Acceptance is not Approval
Thought catching, automatic thoughts, cognitive restructuring
Behaviors and emotions are controlled by one’s interpretation of reality.
Any event could lead to multiple interpretations and thus multiple feelings
The interpretation is not a fact
Identify maladaptive cognitive content
Identify alternatives that account for the same information without being damaging
Is an interpretation: True, Kind, Necessary?
Does Pavlov Ring a Bell?
Unconditioned stimuli are stimuli which produce automatic or unlearned responses.
Respondents are those responses which are reflex or automatic, unlearned responses.
Agreement on Goals
Orientation to Treatment
Establish a relationship
Stay “dialectical” opposites coexist (paradox)
Apply Core Validation
Problem Solving Strategies:
Skill Training
Contingency Management
Cognitive Modification
(Validation is not Agreement)
1. Staying awake: unbiased listening and observing
2. Accurate reflection
3. Articulating (“Reading”) unverbalized emotions, thoughts or behavior patterns
4. Validation in terms of past learning experience or biological dysfunction
5. Validation in terms of present circumstances
6. Radical genuiness
Dialectical Strategies
Entering the Paradox
The Use of Metaphor
The Devil’s Advocate Technique
Activating Wise Mind
Making Lemonade out of Lemons
Allowing Natural Change