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132 Cards in this Set

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tufts of capillaries where urine filtration takes place
glomerulus
the afferent arteriole
supplies blood
the proximal tubule is responsible for
electrolyte absorption
the distal tubule is responsible for
h2o balance and acid/base balance
the efferent arteriole
drains blood
what's the normal lab level of serum creatinine for males?
0.6-1.2mg/dl
what's the normal lab level of serum creatinine for females?
0.5-1.1mg/dl
whats the normal levels of blood osmolarity?
285-295mOsm/L
whats the normal level of BUN?
10-20mg/dl
what should the bun level in older adults (60-90) be?
8-23mg/dl
Urinalysis shows:
color, odor, turbidity
specific gravity
pH
glucose
ketone bodies
protein
leukoesterase
cells, casts, crystals and bacteria
where do diuretics work?
loop of henle
what race has a diet high in NA?
African Americans
African Americans are at high risk for ______ malfunction
kidney
If the blood osmolarity is high, this means there are more particles in the blood which means:
dehydration
Creatinine only shows info about the __________
kidneys
Are used to screen clients for post void residual volumes to determine the need for intermittent catherterization
bedside sonography/bladder scanner
What happens to BUN with Dehydration?
it increases
In a Urinalysis, the pH should be between
4.6-8
the average pH in a urinalysis is
6
On a burn client, specific gravity must be taken how often?
q1h
when is the best time to get a urinalysis?
first a.m. specimen
should glucose be present in urine?
no
If Leukoesterase is present, it's suggestive of a:
uti
What does KUB stand for? Is it noninvasive or invasive?
Kidneys, Ureters, and bladder xray.

noninvasive.
the purpose of this is to visualize the renal blood vessels, renal htn, bleeding from traume
renal angiography
How does a UTI present itself in the older adult?
Confusion, falls, onset of incontinence
what are you looking at when you do a urine stream test?
pelvic muscles
Angiography is also known as two other things:
angiogram, arteriogram
what's the most common type of incontinence?
stress
what is urosepsis?
when bacteria becomes systemic (it is often misunderstood)
What are some foods that acidify urine?

C,C,C,E,F,G,L,M,N,P,P,P,P,R
cheese, corn, cranberries, eggs, fish, grains, lentils, meats, nuts(brazil, filberts, walnuts), pasta, plums, poultry, prunes, rice
what are some foods that alkalinize urine?

F,V,M,N
all fruits except cranberries, prunes, plums
all veggies except corn
milk
almonds, chestnuts
five types of urinary incontinence:
stress
urge
mixed
overflow
functional
what are some symptoms of intersitial cystitis:
pain
severe freq
urgency
how is interstital cystitis diagnosed?
by exclusion
Risk factors for renal calculi:
infection
urinary stasis
immobility
hypercalcemia
increased uric acid
increased urinary oxalate level
where does the pt with renal calculi feel pain?
radiates in flank area
drug therapy for stress incontinence:
estrogen
drug interventions for urge urinary incontinence?
anticholinergics
antihistamines
how is interstital cystitis diagnosed?
by exclusion
how is interstital cystitis diagnosed?
by exclusion
Risk factors for renal calculi:
infection
urinary stasis
immobility
hypercalcemia
increased uric acid
increased urinary oxalate level
Risk factors for renal calculi:
infection
urinary stasis
immobility
hypercalcemia
increased uric acid
increased urinary oxalate level
where does the pt with renal calculi feel pain?
radiates in flank area
where does the pt with renal calculi feel pain?
radiates in flank area
drug therapy for stress incontinence:
estrogen
drug therapy for stress incontinence:
estrogen
drug interventions for urge urinary incontinence?
anticholinergics
antihistamines
drug interventions for urge urinary incontinence?
anticholinergics
antihistamines
how is interstital cystitis diagnosed?
by exclusion
how is interstital cystitis diagnosed?
by exclusion
Risk factors for renal calculi:
infection
urinary stasis
immobility
hypercalcemia
increased uric acid
increased urinary oxalate level
Risk factors for renal calculi:
infection
urinary stasis
immobility
hypercalcemia
increased uric acid
increased urinary oxalate level
where does the pt with renal calculi feel pain?
radiates in flank area
where does the pt with renal calculi feel pain?
radiates in flank area
drug therapy for stress incontinence:
estrogen
drug therapy for stress incontinence:
estrogen
drug interventions for urge urinary incontinence?
anticholinergics
antihistamines
drug interventions for urge urinary incontinence?
anticholinergics
antihistamines
how is interstital cystitis diagnosed?
by exclusion
how is interstital cystitis diagnosed?
by exclusion
Risk factors for renal calculi:
infection
urinary stasis
immobility
hypercalcemia
increased uric acid
increased urinary oxalate level
Risk factors for renal calculi:
infection
urinary stasis
immobility
hypercalcemia
increased uric acid
increased urinary oxalate level
where does the pt with renal calculi feel pain?
radiates in flank area
where does the pt with renal calculi feel pain?
radiates in flank area
drug therapy for stress incontinence:
estrogen
drug therapy for stress incontinence:
estrogen
drug interventions for urge urinary incontinence?
anticholinergics
antihistamines
drug interventions for urge urinary incontinence?
anticholinergics
antihistamines
how many people a year produce stones?
500,000
urolithiasis
stones in urinary area
five types of calculi
calcium oxalate
calcium phosphate
struvite
uric
acid
cystine
What is the most common type of calculi?
calcium oxalate
what is the rarest type of calculi?
cystine
is struvite more commen in men or women?
women
what components cause uric acid calculi?
genetic
ethnic
___%-___% stones are passed spontaneously
80-85
the southeast is considered the "_____________" because there is an increase in mineral content in water
stonebelt
How will the pain feel if the calculi is in the renal pelvis?
dull
constant
if there is calculi in the ureter, the pain will be
severe
excrutiating
who has a higher risk for infected stones?
african american males
three categories for the passage of renal calculi:
fixed
free/traveling stone
staghorn
Pt. was put in bath, and shocked to try and break the stone
lithotripsy
enlargement of the prostate gland by increase in glandular hyperplasia
benign prostatic hypertrophy
risk factors for BPH:
age
hormonal changes
race
african americans develop BPH ____% more then whites
37
what are some characteristics of the normal prostate?
walnut, uniform, elastic
If someone has prostate cancer, the prostate will feel:
like a hard nodule
if someone has benign prostatic hypertrophy (hypertrophy), the prostate will be:
enlarged
plyable
elastic
a piece of the ileum is resected, the intestines are reanastomosed, the ileum is brought out to abd wall to create a stoma with other end sutured. The 2 ureters are implanted into the proximal end. A continuous bag is worn.
ileal conduit
Ureters are implanted into the sigmoid colon. Urine and fecal material drain out through the colon.
ureterosigmoidostomy
a piece of the ileum is constructed into a pouch with 2 ileal nipple valves.
ileal pouch/kock pouch
what are the 2 nipple valves for in the ileal pouch or kock pouch for?
one is to prevent reflux, one to prevent dribbling out of the pouch
what should the nurse teach the client with an ileal/kock pouch?
self catheterize q6-8h (thru nipple valves)
what are the 2 nipple valves for in the ileal pouch or kock pouch for?
one is to prevent reflux, one to prevent dribbling out of the pouch
what should the nurse teach the client with an ileal/kock pouch?
self catheterize q6-8h (thru nipple valves)
the ureters are attached directly to the abd were the urine flows into a collection bag (one or two stomas)
cutaneous ureterostomy
presence of alb or protein in urine means:
kidneys are not functioning
if bun and creatinine go up together:
kidney prob
if fluid issue, ____ will go up really quick
BUN
how many ketone bodies should be seen in urine?
none
when protein reaches 100, u need ________
dialysis
what if the urine has crystal's?
throw it off, it stood too long
casts in urine indicate
bacteria
what's the purpose of intravenous urography/pyleogram? (IVP)
visualize entire urinary system
pt. teaching with intravenous urography/pyleogram? also what might they taste?
may feel hot for 20-30 sec after injection

salty,metallic taste
you must check to see if pt. is ___________ before IV urography/pyleogram.
allergic to iodine
the intravenous urography/pyleogram dye is __________ so you must ____
nephrotoxic
flush out from kidneys
a retrograde pyelogram evaulates
same structures as ivp
Cystoscope is inserted into bladder, catheters are placed in each ureter. dye inj if it doesnt reach kidney, no kidney damage
retrograde pyelogram
what does the KUB xray should:
size
shape
relationship of renal system structures
where is a catheter inserted in a renal angiography?
femoral artery
A cystoscope is placed in urethra directly into bladder. Direct visualization of urethra and bladder is made
cystoscopy
tests muscles used in voiding
electromyography
4 types of UTIS
urethritis
cystitis
prostatitis
pyelonephritis
predisposing factors of UTi's
increased urinary stasis
foreign bodies
anatomic factors
compromised immune response
functional disorders
s/s utis
dysuria
freq. urination
urgency
suprapubic discomfort
hematuria/cloudy appearance.sedamentation/odor
flank pain
fever
chills
URINARY ANALGESIC
PYRIDIUM
RENAL calculi: increase in incidence in males over age __
40
s/s renal calculi:
HEMaturia
n/v
pain
what would you tell someone with urge urinary incontinence about diet therapy?
avoid caffeine and etoh
stone thats always assoc with infection (shape of kidney)
staghorn
asymptomatic unless stone blocks flow of urine (worried about hydronephresis)
fixed
you would be in the greatest amt of pain with this stone
free
the acute phase of care for client with renal calculi:
care focused on symptomatic relief
the second phase of care for client with renal calculi:
elimination of calculi
the 3rd phase of care for client with renal calculi:
prevention of other stones
nephrolithotomy
incison in kidney to remove stone
utereolithotomy
incision in ureter to remove stone
pyelolithotmoy
enter in kidney pelvis to remove stone
splints ureters and prevent them from being obstructed by edema after surgery
J stent