Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/115

Click to flip

115 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
ability to bend light so rays fall on retina
refraction
nearsightedness, image focused behind retina
myopia
farsightedness, image focused behind retina
hyperopia
loss of accommodation 2ndary to aging, begins at age 40
presbyopia
absence of lens
aphakia
uneven curvature= distortion
astigmatism
wandering eye; cannot focus both eyes in same object
strabismus
involuntary, repetitive mvmt of eye.
nystagmus
What is Nystagmus caused by?
-CNS Lesions
-Drug toxicity
-endolymph fluid disturbance in ear vestibule
reduced vision in eye with uncorrected refractive error (LAZY EYE)
amblyopia
opacity within the crystalline lens
cataract
Cataracts can be ___ or _____
unilateral or bilateral
Risk factors for Cataracts: (5)
age
trauma
congential disorder
medications
ocular inflammation
Cataract: pathophysiology:
1. Change in ___________ within lens
2. ______ accumulates in lens
3. alteration in lens fiber structure= __ ____ ____
1. metabolic process
2. water
3. decreased lens transparency
Cataract assessment:
-decreased _______
-increased _______
-abnormal_______
-_____ appearance
vision
glare
color perception
opaque
Cataract: diagnostic studies:
(3)
visual acuity test-Snellen
ophthalmoscope
slit lamp
With Cataracts, you may not need surgery, but _________
vision will decrease
There are some temporary _________ options for the cataract pt.
palliative
Cataracts:
1. Change _______ to improve ______
2. strong ___________, _____
3. Increase ________
4. Drive during daytime to _______
1. perscription/acuity
2. reading glasses, magnifiers
3. amt of light
4. decrease/avoid glare
is the surgical removal of cataracts an in or out pt. procedure?
out
Before removal of cataracts via surgery, the pt. must be NPO for __-__ hrs pre op
6-8
What 2 eye drops are used in the surgical removal of cataracts?
Mydriatic
NSAID
What type of medication is given to the pt. who is having cataract surgery?
antianxiety
Intra Op procedures for the surgical removal of cataracts:
-________ extraction
-________ extraction
-intraocular ____ done at same time
- may/may not_____ ______
-_____ __ and _ injected. _______applied.
-intracapsular
-extracapsular
-implant
-require sutures
-subconjunctival corticosteriod/abx/ointment
Postoperative care: cataract
1. _____ in hours
2. ____ and ___ overnight
3. avoid increase _____
4. ___ and ____ drops
5. New _____
1. home
2. patch/protective shield
3. IOP
4. abx/steroid
5. glasses
separation of retina and underlying epithelium, fluid accumulates between layers
retinal detachment
retinal detachment is an:
EMERGENCY
retinal detachment causes ______ if untreated
blindness
what is the most common cause of retinal detachment?
retinal breaks
The ______ ______ shrinks with aging and pulls on the retina
vitreous humor
2 other causes of retinal detachment:
holes, tears
Retinal detachment: risk factors:
1. High ______
2. ______
3. Proliferative _______ retinopathy
4. retinal _______ degeneration
5. _______ trauma
1. myopia
2. aphakia
3. diabetic
4. lattice
5. Ocular
Retinal detachment: Assessment:
1.
2.
3. "_____" or "______"
4. _____ effect
5. Painless loss of ______ or ______ vision
1. Photopsia
2. floaters
3. cobweb/hairnet
4. curtain
5. peripheral/central
Retinal detachment: diagnostic tests: (4)
1. visual acuity measurement
2. ophthalmoscope
3. slit lamp
4. ultrasound
7 types of retinal surgery:
(VEC LIPS)
vitrectomy
extraocular
cryopexy
laser photocoagulation
intraocular
pneumatic retinopexy
scleral buckling
argon laser beam seals break via scarring
laser photocoagulation
uses extreme cold to create sealing scar. There is considerable post op pain
cryopexy
Scleral buckling is used with _______ or ________
cryopexy/laser
With scleral buckling, the globe is _______ and bodies within the eye ____________.
indented
move toward retina
a ______ _______ is ______ causing sclera to buckle inward
silicone implant/sutured
what type of anesthesia is a pt. who is undergoing scleral buckling under?
local anesthesia
Is scleral buckling and in or our pt. procedure?
outpt or overnight stay.
with ________ _________, a temporary bubble is injected into the vitreous, closing the retinal break
pneumatic retinopexy
Pneumatic retinopexy is done with ______ or ________
laser/cryopexy
with pneumatic retinopexy, the ____ __ ______ so the bubble is in contact with the retinal break
head is positioned
surgical removal of the vitreous
vitrectomy
vitrectomy relives ______ on retina
traction
Vitrectomy may be used with _______ _______
scleral buckling
ARMD stands for: _______
there are two classic forms:____/_____
age related macular degeneration
wet/dry
degeneration of the macula= loss of ______ ________
central vision
_______ slowly progressive to 20/200 vision
dry ARMD
Wet (exudate) ARMD: progresses
rapidly over days-weeks
with this, there is a distinct area of blurred, darkened, distorted vision
Wet ARMD
with this, near/close vision tasks more difficult:>
dry ARMD
with this, develop abnormal bvs in or near macula
wet ARMD
= accumulation or waste material in retinal pigment
ARMD
ARMD is r/t : (6)
-retinal aging
-heredity
-environmental exposure to UV light
-dietary intake
-use of carotenoids
-cigarette smokers
Macular degeneration assessment: Drusen in the ____ of the eye
fundus
Sx of macular degeneration are:
scolomas
blurred vision
metamorphosis
Macular degeneration: diagnostic studies: (5)
V, O, A, F, I
visual acuity
ophthalmoscopy
amsler grid test
fundal photography
iv fluorescein angiography
with macular degeneration, there is no specific txt. ________ _____ may reduce visual loss
laser txt
____, ____, _____ and Vitamins __, and __ may slow the process of macular degeneration
carotene, zinc, selenium, E, C
It's important to provide emotional support to a pt. with macular degeneration. __ ______ and ______ ______ may be used
magnifying glass
amplication lamp
group of disease characterized by increased intraocular pressure
glaucoma
Glaucoma- ______ of the optic nerve
atrophy
in glaucoma, there will be changes in ______ vision
peripheral
2nd leading cause of blindness in US, 1st for african americans
glaucoma
Glaucoma may be secondary to other _____ or _______ problems
systemic
ocular
There is an increased likelihood of getting glaucoma with
aging.
normal IOP is
10-21mmHg
IOP is regulated by inflow (formation) and outflow (reabsorption) of _______ _______. ________ is directly r/t this balance
aqueous humor
glaucoma
IOP occurs when the rate of ___ exceeds the rate of ______
inflow
outflow
Types of glaucoma include: (6)
1. primary open angle
2. primary angle closure
3. secondary
4. congenital
5. chronic open angle
6. acute angle closure
Outflow of aqeuous humor is decreased in trabecular meshwork= clogged channels
primary open angle glaucoma
the s/s or primary open angle glaucoma develop ______. Primary open angle glaucoma may even be ________>
slowly.
asymptomatic
"tunnel vision" is a s/e of :
primary open angle
pupil dilation causes peripheral buldging of the iris which covers the trabecular meshwork and blocks outflow
primary angle closure
s/s of primary angle closure glaucoma are:
sudden, excruitiating pain
n/v
colored halos
blurred vision
ocular redness
corneal edema
Secondary glaucoma is caused by:
trauma
neoplasma
ocular/systemic conditions
abnormal functioning of angle from birth
congenital glaucoma
The s/s of chronic open-angel and subacute angle closure:
gradual blurred vision
colored halos
ocular redness
eye/brow pain
This type of glaucoma is an emergency that requires IV meds and iridotomy
acute angle closure
Glaucoma: diagnostic studies:
1. measurement of ___ and of ____ via ___ _______
2.assessment of ______ vision
3. examination of ______ _____ for ________
1. IOP/Angle/slit lamp
2. peripheral
3. optic disc/cupping
3 types of txt for glaucoma:
-keep IOP low to prevent optic nerve damage
-pharmaceutical agents
-surgery
6 types of medications for glaucoma are:
b blockers
adrenergics
cholinergics/miotics
pilocarpine
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
hyperosmolar agents
Surgery available for certain glaucoma that includes a laser around trabecular meshwork, which opens outflow channels
Argon Laser trabeculoplasty (ALT)
__________: filtering procedure. Conjunctival and scleral flaps are created, trabecular meshwork is removed.
trabeculectomy
what surgical procedure is used for acute angle closure glaucoma, to decrease the IOP fast?
iridotomy
Glaucoma nsg care: teach prevention. Teach about screening:
q___-___yrs 40-64 years old
q___-___yrs 65+ years old
more freq. screenings with ____, ___
2-4
1-2
family hx/african americans
90% of eye trauma is preventable with ______ _____
protective gear
name some types of eye trauma: (5)
blunt, penetrating, chemical exposure, thermal injury or foreign bodies.
Eye trauma: Nursing interventions
1. ______ foreign object
2. cover with ____, _____ patch
3. irrigate immediately with what? (continue until emergency staff arrives)
4. no pressure should be put on eye. advise pt. not to:
1. stabilize
2. dry / sterile
3. NS or H20
4. blow nose
what type of med is given to a pt. with eye trauma?
Analgesics
infection of the sebaceous glands-lid margins
hordeolum aka sty
what is usually the bacteria that causes a sty?
staph aureus
s/s of sty:
red
swollen
tender
txt for hordeolum
warm moist compress QID
inflammation of the sebaceous glands
chalazion
_________ may evolve into hordeolum.
chalazion
s/s of chalazion:

usually affects the ____ lid
swollen, nontendor, red
txt for chalazion:
Warm moist compresses
surgical removal
corticosteroids into chronic lesion
infection/inflammation of conjunctiva
conjunctivitis
common, chronic bilateral inflammation of lid margins
blepharitis
blepharitis is caused by _______
staph
s/s of blepharitis are:
red rimmed/crusty lids and lashes

itching
burning
photophobia
can be bacterial, viral, chlamydial
conjunctivitis
s/s of conjunctivitis are:
irritation, tearing, redness, burning, mucopurulent d/c, photophobia
what prevents the spread of conjunctivitis?
handwashing, abx drops
inflammation or infection of cornea
keratitis
keratitis can be ___,_____ or _____
bacterial
viral
fungal
it the keratits involves conjunctiva it is called:
keratoconjunctivitis
s/s of keratitis are:
pain
photophobia
redness
s/s infection
tearing
risk factors of keratitis include:
mechanical/chemical abrasions
contact lens usage
nutritional deficiencies
immunocompromised
contaminated products
corneal disorder
keratoconus
keratoconus is usually ______
bilateral