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48 Cards in this Set

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Explanation of the cause or origin of something. Many myths are aetiological, that is, they explain how something came to be.
What kind of myth is that of Pandora?
The myth of Pandora is an aetiological myth explaining the origin of women

('god' + 'justice'): a vindication of the justice of God in allowing evil to exist

('self' + 'earth'): indigenous; arising from the earth itself

Golden Age
mythic primeval era characterized by benevolent nature, peaceful creatures, and no need for trade, agriculture, war, or mining
What question do myths concerning the Creation of Woman/Flood/Ages of Man seek to explore?
They explore the question of how evil entered the world
What is the first answer to how evil enters the world?
1) An agent causes evil to appear
What is the second answer to how evil enters the world?
2) The world deteriorates from an original, superior state to an inferior state
Name the 5 ages of man in chronological order
Golden, Silver, Bronze, Heroes, Iron
Name and characterize the first age of man
Golden Age; closest to Eden
Name and characterize the second age of man
Silver age; mortals are immature, diseased; they pay no honor to the Gods, so Zeus destroys them
Name and characterize the third age of man
Bronze age; warriors, did nothing but fight, made of metal, killed each other
Name and characterize the fourth age of man
legendary figures of Trojan war and other epic tales
Name and characterize the fifth age of man
present. Immoral, do not honor virtue
What's the basic premise of the flood myth?
Man deteriorates morally and is destroyed as punishment for wickedness; the gods start over with a new race of men.
What does 'Zeus Xenios' refer to ?
Zeus as protector of guests and strangers.
In Genesis 1, what's the creation story?
Simultaneous creation of mankind, no "fall"
In Genesis 2, what's the creation story?
Created separately, woman brings about the "fall"
Who is seemingly more evil: Pandora, or Eve?
Describe the Pandora story from the Works & Days
Zeus decompensates for the benefit of fire by giving man the female (Pandora)
Describe the Pandora story from the Theogeny
Prometheus tricks Zeus into accepting the worse sacrifice; Zeus retaliates w/ fire; Prometheus gives fire to man; Zeus retaliates w/ woman (Pandora)
Curiosity with what object(s) is common in mythology, and often involves women?
the "jar" or "box" (however, not a present theme in Hesiod)
Where is the famous nude statue of Aphrodite located?
Is the idea of the woman and the container (i.e., the jar or box) always a bad thing?
No; in Hesiod it is bad, but in the Roman version it is good (although it's the woman's fault in both cases)
What does woman always cause?
The fall or decline of man
In spite of its glorious appearance and seeming carefree nature, what can the Golden Age of Man be characterized as?
A time when man lacked knowledge
What was a major aspect of the Golden Age/Garden of Eden concerning the earth?
There was no cutting into the surface of the earth (or the sea, or the skin of enemies); surfaces remain inviolated
True or false: flood myths are very old
True. Flood myths are very old. Akkadian flood myths dealt with the idea that there were too many humans.
What prompts the flood in Hesiod and the Biblical versions?
Man's wickedness prompts the flood in Hesiod and the Biblical versions
In the Biblical flood, who repopulates the earth?
How is the earth repopulated after the flood in Hesiod?
By an instantaneous growth by stones thrown to the ground and turned into people (idea of 'autochthony')
What was Odysseus' epithet?
"Man of Many Tricks (or 'Devices')"
What is an obvious attribute of Zeus?
The thunderbolt
The statue built for the Temple of Zeus was _____________.
What was the story of Ganymede?
Prince of Troy, abducted by Zeus and taken to Olympus to be Zeus' cupbearer; his father mourned him until he was reassured by the gods.
What are the 2 types of shrines to gods?
Local shrines, Panhellenic shrines

Local shrines
(make up the vast majority of shrines); seen primarily for benefit of you and your citizens

Panhellenic shrines
common to all Greek speaking people (i.e., the Oracle at Delphi)
Creatures associated with the sea are frequently _________
Monsters (i.e., the Gorgon which has snakes for hair, which is present on the Temple of Artemis)
What do the Gorgons and Scylla suggest together?
That men are afraid of womens' vaginal areas, and the threat of the female genitals manifests itself in their monstrous renditions of the regions

An adjective or descriptive noun phrase attached to a hero or god and expressing some quality or relation appropriate to that figure

Cult site or institution which is considered the common property of all Greek-speaking peoples, rather than primarily the property of those who live where it is situated

Constructed of gold and ivory; There are two famous 5th-century BCE chryselephantine statutes by Pheidias: that of Zeus, and that of Athena

Heiros Gamos
Sacred Marriage; a ritual reenactment of a divine union between male and female principles OR a mythic representation of such a union. (i.e., Zeus and Hera)

Designed to avert or turn away evil (i.e., gargoyles)
The phrase 'chthonic' pertains to what?
The underworld (but also the earth)
Thetis married who and begot Achilles?
True or false; Sacrifice goes on inside the temple
False! Offerings are always burnt outside at the great altar