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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What was the point to looking at Armillariella?
-to see the hairlike rhizomorphs
What was the point to looking at Coprinus?
-to see the clamp connections
Classify, draw and label Agaricus.
O-Agaricales (True Mushrooms)

Did you get:
Classify, draw and label Pleurotus/Flammulina
O-Agaricales (True Mushrooms)

Did you get:
Classify, draw and label Coprinus
O-Agaricales (True Mushrooms)

Did you get:
-clamp connection
-cap trama
-immature basidium
-mature basidium
Classify, draw and label Polyporus
O-Polyporales (bracket, coral, tooth, dry rot fungi)

Did you get:
Classify, draw and label Lycoperdon.
O-Lycoperdales (Puffballs)

Did you get:
Classify Order Phallales
O-Phallales (stinkhorns)
Classify Order Nidulariales
O-Nidulariales (bird's nest fungi)
Classify Class Phragmobasidiomycetes
C-Phragmobasidiomycetes (jelly fungi)
Classify, draw and label Puccinia
C-Heterobasidiomycets (rusts and smuts)
O-Uredinales (rusts)

Did you get:
-wheat epidermis
-dikaryotic hyphae
-teliospore (2 celled)
-barberry leaf
-receptive hyphae
Classify, draw and label Ustilago
C-Heterobasidiomycets (rusts and smuts)
O-Ustilaginales (smuts)

Did you get:
What are some defining characteristics to the Phylum Basidiomycota?
-characterized by the production of basidiospores externally on basidia
-most of the large conspicuous fungi encoutered in fields and woods belong to this phylum
-form close associations of parallel hyphae which become interwoven
-such associations result in mycelial strands or in more complex and differentiated RHIZOMORPHS
-mycelial with septate hyphae
-septa differs from that of the Ascomycota because it has a more complex pore
-hyphae have a CLAMP CONNECTION at each septum of most, but bot all dikaryotic hyphae
-asexual reproduction is less common in most groups of Basidiomycota than among Ascomycota, when it does happen, it is less complex then Ascomycota
-lack gametangia, except Rusts (Uredinales)
-about 90% are heterothallic
Go over the generalized life cycle of Basidiomycota
-individual spores produce a self sterile HOMOKARYOTIC (genetically identical haploid nuclei) mycelium which IS NOT able to produce fruiting bodies
-2 sexually compatible mycelia must meet to obtain fruit bodies
-capacity to enter into fertile matings is determined either by a series of muliple alleles located at one locus (BIPOLAR SEXUALITY) or by 2 series of multiple alleles located at 2 loci on different chromosomes (TETRAPOLAR SEXUALITY)
-because fruiting will result from only some combinations of many known mating factors, there is no point in using terms as male/female, +/-; they have many sexes
2 major, completely separate steps in the process of sexual reproduction:

1)-compatible nuclei of 2 different mating factors come together but they do not fuse
-accomplished when 2 homokaryotic mycelia, each with one of the nuclear types, grow together
-short hyphal connections form between the 2 mycelia and nuclei pass from one mycelium into the other. This iscalled SOMATOGAMY, a type of plasmogamy involving undifferentiated, vegetative hyphae
-exchange of nuclei is normally reciprocal and occurs at a number of places between hyphae of the 2 mycelia

2)-if an invading nucleus enters a hypha at a distance from the apical cell, it migrates through septal pores to the apical cell, called the BULLER PHENOMENON
-once in the apical cell, the invading nucleus associates with the native nucleus to establish a DIKARYON PAIR
-now that the apical tip has the dikaryon pair, it is free to grow and elongate by making CLAMP CONNECTIONS (discussed in another flashcard)
-dikaryotic mycelium forms a BASIDIOCARP which gives rise to BASIDIA
-the dikaryotic basidium undergoes KARYOGAMY and almost immediately after, MEIOSIS to form BASIDIOSPORES
-basidiospores are released, and the process repeats

How do Basidiomycete hyphae grow?
-by division and elongation of the apical cells
-a dikaryotic tip cell with 2 distinct nuclear types grows by tip growth
-completion of mitosis triggers septum formation in the hypha and also at the base of the hook cell
-the tip of the hook cell fuses with the hypha allowing the second nucleus to rejoin its dikaryotic pair
-the newly formed apical cell elongates again, and eventually the whole process repeats

The dikaryon mycelium of Basidiomycetes grows indefinately.
T and F
-can continue to grow indefinately but if the nutritional and environmental conditions are suitable, it will produce a fruit body called a BASIDIOCARP/BASIDIOMA
-in the HYMENIUM of the basidiocarp, the terminal cell of the dikaryotic hyphae will enlarge to form a BASIDIUM
-only at this stage is does KARYOGAMY occur and a diploid nucleus is formed
-nucleus undergoes meiosis and each of the 4 daughter nuclei typically enters one of 4 BASIDIOSPORES which grow on the STERIGMA on the basidium

-basidiospores that get shot away
-found in all typical mushrooms
-they are typically ovoid to somewhat kidney shaped and are asymmetrically attached to the tip of the sterigma
-a HILUM is a small bump by the ballistospore and the sterigma
-water collects on the hilum and eventually covers the ballistospore
-the negative charge, as a result of the water, causes a repulsion between the ballistospore and sterigma, shooting the damn thing away
-I call BS on this theory...

**pg.126, M38**
What are some defining characteristics to the Class Hymenomycetes?
-basidia are club shaped and non septate
-number of basidiospores vary from 1 to 8
-has the most complex basidiocarp
-basidia are formed in a definate HYMENIUM LAYER which extends over various specialized supporting structuer in the basidiocarp/basidiomata
-basidiospores are of the ballistospore type and germinate only by germ tubes
-gills are kept apart by CYSTIDIA
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Agaricales?
-AKA true mushrooms
-basidiocarps are always fleshy, annual and consists of a STIPE and PILEUS
-stipe may be central or eccentric
-pileus has 2 major regions, the CAP TRAMA (sterile region) and the HYMENOPHORE (spore bearing region)
-hymenophore is either in the form of GILLS/LAMELLAE radiatig from the stipe or in the form of TUBES or PITS
-many Agaricales are edible but many are also toxic... so in short, don't eat wild ones, especially the one that grow in FAERY RINGS
Go over the life cycle of Coprinus.
-follows the typical Basidiomycota life cycle already discussed in another flashcard
-the difference is in spore dispersal
-caps AUTOLYZE at maturity
-the cells undergo self digestion under the action of certain enzymes which are produced in the cells themselves, the process starts at the edge of the cap
-the cell contents become converted to a black liquid which drips to the ground and carries spores with it, as opposed to 'shooting' off the gills and being swept by the wind
-the spores do not autolyze

What are some defining characteristics to the Order Polyporales?
-AKA Bracket/Shelf fungi, coral fungi, tooth fungi, dry rot fungi
-fruit body is hard or at least tough, or it becomes tough at maturity
-hymenium lines different structures on the basidiocarp depending on the group
-if the hymenium lines pores or covers lamellae, then the fruit body is not soft at any stage of development
List and describe the 4 Families found in the Order Polyporales.
1)Polyporaceae (Bracket/Shelf fungi)
-live on wood, tree parasites
-hymenium lines the inner surfaces of TUBES/PORES or sometimes covers RIDGES
-ridges superficially resemble gills of Agaricales but they do not radiate outward from a central stalk

2)Meruliaceae (dry rot fungi)
-fruit bodies are irregular flat cushions of mycelium with ridges and pits lined by hymenium
-usually have mycelial strands and rhizomorphs
-often attack cabins and houses

3)Clavariaceae (coral fungi)
-have upright, cylindrical or club shaped basidiocarps
-may be simple or branched, and are covered all over by the hymenium except at the base
-fruit bodies are often brightly colored

4)Hydnaceae (tooth fungi)
-fruit bodies are either mushroom shaped or irregular coral shaped
-hymenium covers spines or elongated cylindrical projections which piont downwards
What are some defining characteristics to the Class Gasteromycetes?
-fruit bodies either remain closed throughout their entire development or open only after the spores have matured
-basidia are non septate and usually ovoid or spherical instead of being elongated and clubshaped as those of the Hymenomycetes
-can have 4 to 12 basidiospores per basidium
-basidiospores are never shot away from the basidium
-sterigma remains attached to the spore after the basidium disintegrates, giving the spores a drumstick appearance
-basidiocarp have an outer wall called a PERIDIUM which consists of 2 to several layers and may become dry and paper thin at maturity
-peridium breaks either by itself or by mechanical damage, releasing the spores
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Lycoperdales (Puffballs)
-basidiocarps are closed and range in shape from spherical, through pear shaped to somewhat irregular and sacklike
-spore bearing region is enclosed by a PERIDIUM of 2 to several layesr
-you stage is white and consists of a solid mass of hyphae
-eventually, vast numbers of basidia and basidiospores form on the hyphae
-hyphae disintegrate in part but segments of hyphae remain among the spore mass and become the CAPILLITIUM
-spores are dark and dry and are released in various ways
-most common way of spore release is by raindrop impact on the inner peridium, causing a cloud of sporesto puff out
-huge ass puffballs exist (4ft in length)
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Phallales (Stinkhorns)
-egg shaped and have a whitish outer peridium layer during young stage
-when basidiocarp approaches maturity, the egg splits open and a stalked spore supporting structuer elongates very rapidly
-the basidiocarp may be single, looking like a dink, hence the name 'phalloides', or consists of several curved structures and become gelatinized by AUTODIGESTION
-slime gives off a bad smell and attracts flies whch carry the spores away
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Nidulariales (Bird's nest fungi)
-basidiocarps are cup or funnel shaped and are intially closed
-when they mature, the thin portion of the peridium which covers the sup breaks open
-inside the cup are are flat, lentil shaped, stalked strutures called PERIDIOLES
-open basidiocarp and peridioles look like birds eggs in a nest, hence the frickin name
-each peridiole contains many BASIDIOSPORES in the central cavity
-mature basidiospores are dispersed by raindrops, flipping them out of the cup and pulling out the FUNICULAR CHORD from the attaching stalk
-this chord becomes wrapped around vegetation thereby suspending the peridiole
-peridioles are accidentally eaten by herbivores and the basidiospores are released in their shit where they germinate to form fruit bodies again
What are some defining characterisitics to the Class Phragmobasidiomycetes?
-AKA Jelly Fungi
-ruit bodies are usually fairly large and consist of hyphae embedded in a matrix of secreted, extracellular gelatinous material
-in some spp, the fruit bodies are merely cushions or dry thin mats where the mymenial layer with its basidia constitutes the bulk of the fruit body
-fruit bodies are mostly gelatinous, funnel and fan shaped and often quite variable in shape
What are some defining characteristics to the Class Heterobasidiomycetes?
-AKA Rusts and Smuts
-economically important plant parasites
-characterized by producing thick walled TELIOSPORES which may have 1 to several cells depending on the genus
-each cell produces a short hypha on which basidiopores are formed (4 in Rusts; variable number in Smuts)
-the TELIOSPORE and HYPHA constitute the BASIDIUM
-basidiospores either germinate directly by a germ tube or in some Smuts may also produce small secondary basidiospores
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Uredinales?
-AKA Rusts
-highly specialized plant pathogens
-hyphae are mainly intercellular in the host tissue but they send short haustoria into the host cells
-complex life cycles (many stages, alternate hosts... the f'n works man!!!)
-HETEROECIOUS (ie: completes life cycle on 2 seperate host spp's)
-eg: Puccinia life cycle, discussed on another card
Go over the life cycle of Puccinia graminis.
-haploid basidiospores are released from the basidium
-many basidiospores land on Barberry leaves
-basidiospores germinate and form a haploid mycelium
-these hyphae will produce either + or - SPERMOGONIA
-inside the sperogonia, minute uninucleate SPERMATIA form on SPERMATIOPHORES, and the spermogoina also produce thin long RECEPTIVE HYPHAE which project into the open
-spermatia and receptive hyphae on a given speromonium carry the same mating factor and therefor do not self fertilize
-spermatia function as male gametes, those of one mating type are carred to receptive hyphae of the opposite mating type by vectors such as insects which are attracted by sweet nectar secreeted by the spermogonia
-when a spermatium becomes attached to a receptive hypha of the opposite mating type, PLASMOGAMY follows, and the spermatial nucleus passes into the hypha
-in the meanwhile, mycelium has grown from the spermogonium through the Barberry leaf, and has formed an AECIAL PRIMORDIUM in the lower leaf epidermis
-dikaryotic nuclei migrate through the mycelium to the aecial primordium
-once dikaryotic nuclei reach aecial primordium, the primorida develop into mature cup shaped AECIA(IUM)
-chains of DIKARYOTIC AECIOSPORES form in the aecia on short stalks
-they are disseminated by the wind and germinate if they land on wheat
-the resulting mycelium produces UREDINIA (a pustule) that bears UREDINIOSPORES
-uredinia are unicellular, thick walled, dikaryotic UREDINOSPORES on stalks (basically conidia and conidiophores, term for Rusts)
-the urediniospores care carried away by wind and germinate rapidly when they land on moist wheat surfaces thereby SPREADING the infection. The cycle of uredinia to urediniospores can be repeated several times during the growing season
-when the host ages, the SAME mycelium which produced uredinia now produces TELIA in the host epidermis
-telia is a mass of black, 2 celled thck walled TELIOSPORES form on short stalks and both cells are first DIKARYOTIC
-the nuclei of each dikaryon cell fuse (KARYOGAMY) and give a diploid nucleus
-teliospores overwinter on stubble or on the ground, and next spring both cells of the spores germinate and each produces an elongated BASIDIUM
-meiosis of the diploid nucleus in each basidium gives 4 haploid nuclei
-septa divide the basidium into 4 uninucleate cells
-each cell forms a BASIDIOSPORE of the ballistospore type on a sterigma
-Basidiospores are dischared and then dispersed by the wind.
-they land on Barberry leaves and the cycle repeats... Whew!!!
What are some defining characteristics to the Order Ustilaginales?
-AKA Smuts
-parasites which attck many economically important plants
-roduces a large powdery mass of black spores in the inflorescence(flower cluster)
-complete their life cycle on 1 host (HOMOECIOUS)
-have thick walled TELIOSPORES which germinate into cylindrical basidia
-basidia are either septate or non septate
-number of basidiospores on a basidium varies in the same spp's, unlike the definate number produced by the Rusts
-basidiospores do not form on sterigmata, but are budded off directly from the basidia (ie: not ballistospores)
-Smuts do not have sex organs and fusion to form a dikaryon occurs between any 2 compatible cells with the appropriate mating factors
-fusion can take place directly between basidiospores or between hyphae
-the dikaryon mycelium produces the teliospores