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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Mycology?
study of:
-Fungi - yeasts and molds
-They are eukaryotes
What are the two ways we observe fungi?
on Agar
what are the two forms of Fungal cells that may be seen on microscope?
What are two types of hyphae seen:
Micro: septate vs. aseptate

Macro: aerial vs. vegetative
5 typical characteristics of Yeasts:
1. budding - blastoconidia
2. pseudohyphae
3. hyphae
4. chlamydospores
5. arthroconidia
What are the 4 General Characteristics of Mold contaminants/opportunists?
1. Saprophytes
2. Opportunistic pathogens
3. Rapid-growers; 4-5d at 25-30 degrees.
4. Septate hyphae except zygomycetes.
What are the Common Contaminants? (10)
Aspergillus niger
Zygomycetes: mucor rhizopus and absidia
What is mucormycosis?
a rare opportunistic infection caused by Zygomycetes mucor;
-originates from inhaled spores in the soil
-goes to the bloodstream
-restricts blood flow to nose/mouth
-ultimately goes to the brain.
what are the 3 species of Zygomycetes?
TEXTURE describes what about molds?

4 terms used to describe it:
describes consistency of aerial mycelium.

what about mold does arrangement describe?

3 terms:
its patterns within colonies.

-Rugose - indented center
-Umbonate - raised center
-Verrucose - irregular elevations
IN mold, what is the
-Vegetative portion
-Reproductive portion
vegetative : hypha
reproductive: spores
what are hyphae?
filaments produced by mold
what is a mass of hyphae called?
2 types of mycelium
what is the function of aerial mycelia?
support the reproductive structures - spores
what is the function of vegetative mycelia?
extends below surface into medium to absorb food
are most hyphae septate or aseptate?
what type of spores are produced by most fungi of medical importance?
asexual - imperfect spores
what are the 7 types of spores produced by molds?
what is a blastoconidia?
the most common type of sporulation; simple budding from another hypha.
what are chlamydoconidia?
very resistant, thick-walled structures.
what are arthroconidia?
spores from fragmentation of hypha
what are phialoconidia? arise from..
spores that arise from a vase on a tube-like strucuture called a phialide.
what are macroconidia?
large, septate spores
what are microconidia?
small, aseptate spores.
what are sporangiospores?
spores formed within a sac called a sporangium
chlamydoSPORES are associated with ______
chlamydoCONIDIA are associted with ______
spores = yeast
conidia= molds
what morphology is typical of Acremonium species?
conidiophore with balls of conidia at the end - looks like a daisy
what's typical morphology of alternaria?
Macroconidia - large septate spores with alternating vertical and horizontal septa.
what morphology is typical of aspergillus niger?
phialoconidia on top of a conidiophore.
-phialides coming off
what specimens are tested for Dermatophytes and Superficial Mycoses?
Hair NAils
Dermatophytes are found in ____
Superfic. Mycoses are found in ___ and __
Dermato = skin

Superficial = Hair and Nails
what are the three main genera of the dermatophytes and superficial mycoses?

main characteristic in ALL:
what infection do they all cause?

-All are SEPTATE
-All cause Tinea - "gnawing worm" in various forms.
In what body parts are the 3 dermatophytes found?

What microscopic characteristic distinguishes each?
Microsporum - skin, hair; Tapered macroconidia.

Trycophyton: skin, hair, nails; Microconidia.

Epidermophyton: skin, nails; club-shaped macroconidia
how are tinea infections transmitted?
person to person, by sharing combs and hats.
what is Tinea capitis?

caused by what two genera?
infection of the scalp. Originally thought to be ringworm beause causes a ring and circle of hair may be lost.

-Microsporum and Trychophyton
what funny animal does the microscope of microsporum look like?

what distinguishes trychophyton?
the silhouette of an ARMADILLO.

In contrast, NOTHING distinguishes trycho - just lots of little microconidia.
What is tinea barbae, what causes it?
infection of beard area.

what is tinea corporis, what causes it?

what's a special form, what causes it?
infection of the body, trunk.

-Any dermatophyte.

Tinea imbricata -
caused by Tinea concentricum giving a tattooed look without the tattoo price!
what is Tinea cruris? what causes it?
Jock itch - gross-phytes man

Epidermophyton floccosum
Trichophyton rubrum and mentagrophytes
What is tinea pedis, what causes it?
athlete's foot

trichophyton or epidermophyton
what is the disease ll's son had?
(I pity him)

it has two names
Pityriasis (Tinea) versicolor
aka, Malassezia furfur

caused by malassezia
what are the 4 types of superficial mycoses?
1. Onychomychosis
2. Trichophyton tonsurans
3. Black/white piedra
4. Ectothrix and Endothrix.
What is onychomychosis? what causes it?
a fungal nail infection caused by
C. albicans
what is trichophyton tonsurans the cause of?
black dots on the scalp
what do black and white piedra look like?
black: dense fungus causing black nodules around hair shafts.

white: cottony, looser fungus grows around the shaft.

both cause hair breakage.
what is the difference between ectothrix and endothrix?
-both are hair infections, but
Ecto = mold on the hair shaft OUTSIDE,
Endo = many fungal spores withIN the hair shaft.
what is rose gardener's disease?
what type of mucosis is it?
what causes sporotrichosis, where is it seen, from what is it normal flora?
Sporothrix schenkii
-seen in the U. S.
-normal in soil.
what happens in sporotrichosis?
gardener gets pricked, the mold causes lesions on hands/arms and moves up into lymphatic system
what's intresting about sporothrix schenkii from a lab point of view?
it is a DIMORPHIC fungus - has two growth phases
what are the phases of sporothrix?
-Mycelial 25"C

-Yeast (tissue) phase 37"C
which phase is infectious? why?
mycelial - it's where there are hyphae and spores in the soil.