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98 Cards in this Set

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ordeal
1 : a primitive means used to determine guilt or innocence by submitting the accused to dangerous or painful tests believed to be under supernatural control <ordeal by fire>
2 : a severe trial or experience

The hostages' ordeal came to an end when soldiers stormed the building.

嚴峻考驗;苦難,折磨
unscathed
adjective [after verb]
without injuries or damage being caused:
Her husband died in the accident but she, amazingly, escaped unscathed.
impugn
1 : to assail by words or arguments : oppose or attack as false or lacking integrity <impugned the defendant's character>
assail
verb FORMAL
1 [T] to attack someone violently or criticize someone strongly:
The victim had been assailed with repeated blows to the head and body.
He was assailed with insults and abuse as he left the court.

2 [T often passive] to cause someone to experience a lot of unpleasant things:
to be assailed by doubts/fears/problems
tarnish
verb [T]
- to spoil the reputation of someone or something:
By this time a series of scandals had severely tarnished the leader's image/reputation.

verb [I or T]
to make or (especially of metal) become less bright or a different colour
sully
verb [T] FORMAL
1 to spoil something or someone's perfect reputation or purity:
His reputation, he said, had been unfairly sullied by allegations, half-truths and innuendos.

2 to make something dirty:
No speck of dirt had ever sullied his hands.
defile
verb [T] FORMAL
to spoil the beauty, importance, purity, etc. of something or someone:
It's a shame that such a beautiful area has been defiled by a rubbish dump.
The soldiers deliberately defiled all the holy places.
assimilate
1 a: to take in and utilize as nourishment : absorb into the system b: to take into the mind and thoroughly comprehend

2 a: to make similar b: to alter by assimilation c: to absorb into the culture or mores of a population or group3: compare, liken
dogmatic
adjective DISAPPROVING
- If someone is dogmatic, they are certain that they are right and that everyone else is wrong.

- of or related to a fixed, especially religious, belief or set of beliefs that people are expected to accept without any doubts
merit
noun [C or U]
1 FORMAL the quality of being good and deserving praise:
an entertaining film with little artistic merit
Her ideas have merit.
Brierley's book has the merit of being both informative and readable.

2 the merits of sth the advantages something has compared to something else:
We discussed the merits of herbal tea.

verb [T] FORMAL
If something merits a particular treatment, it deserves or is considered important enough to be treated in that way:
This plan merits careful attention.
The accident merited only a small paragraph in the local paper.
petulant
1 : insolent or rude in speech or behavior

2 : characterized by temporary or capricious ill humor : peevish
modulate
- to change the style, loudness, etc. of something such as your voice in order to achieve an effect or express an emotion:
His gentle introductory tone modulates into a football coach's pre-game pep talk.

- to change something, such as an action or a process, to make it more suitable for its situation:
An elected committee will meet monthly to modulate the council's energy policy.

- to vary the amplitude, frequency, or phase of (a carrier wave or a light wave) for the transmission of information (as by radio); also : to vary the velocity of electrons in an electron beam

1. 調整;控制;緩和
2.【音】使變調
3. 聲調抑揚地唱
4.【無】調制
differentiate
2 : to become distinct or different in character
3 : to undergo differentiation
inquisitive
adjective
wanting to discover as much as you can about things, sometimes in a way that annoys people:
an inquisitive child
an inquisitive mind
She could see inquisitive faces looking out from the windows next door.
presumptuous
adjective
A person who is presumptuous shows a lack of respect for others by doing things they have no right to do:
It would be presumptuous of me to comment on the matter.

放肆的;冒昧的;專橫的
undercut
to weaken or damage something or to cause it to fail; undermine:
He suspected it was an attempt to undercut his authority.
drone
noun [S]
a low continuous noise which does not change its note:
the drone of an engine
Outside the tent I could hear the constant drone of insects.
The drone of his voice made me feel sleepy.
monotonous
adjective
staying the same and not changing and therefore boring:
a monotonous job
a monotonous voice
The music became monotonous after a while.
faultfinding
disposed to find fault : captiously critical
commendable
adjective FORMAL
deserving praise:
commendable efforts/behaviour/bravery
obligatory
adjective
1 describes something you must do because of a rule or law, etc:
The medical examination before you start work is obligatory.
[+ to infinitive] The statute made it obligatory for all fit males between 12 and 60 to work.

2 expected because it usually happens:
Some secret service agents turned up, all wearing the obligatory raincoat and hat.
dawdle
verb [I]
to do something or go somewhere very slowly, taking more time than is necessary:
Stop dawdling! You'll be late for school!
toil
1: to work hard and long
2: to proceed with laborious effort : plod
irksome
tending to make weary, irritated, or bored : tedious <an irksome task>
courteous
adjective
polite and respectful; well-mannered:
Although she often disagreed with me, she was always courteous.
preamble
noun
1 [C] SPECIALIZED an introduction to a speech or piece of writing

2 [U] talk or activity not connected with the most important matter
expand
1: to open out : spread

2: to increase in extent, number, volume, or scope

3: to speak or write fully or in detail <expanded on the theme>
4: to feel generous or optimistic
volume
noun
1 [C or U] the amount of space that is enclosed within an object or solid shape:
Which of these bottles do you think has the greater volume?

2 [U] the number or amount of something in general:
It's the sheer volume of traffic in the city that is causing the problems.
proliferate
1 : to grow by rapid production of new parts, cells, buds, or offspring 2 : to increase in number as if by proliferating : multiply
abut
1: to touch along a border or with a projecting part <land abuts on the road>

2 a: to terminate at a point of contact b: to lean for support

- 鄰接;毗連;緊靠
contiguous
1: being in actual contact : touching along a boundary or at a point
2 of angles : adjacent
3: next or near in time or sequence
4: touching or connected throughout in an unbroken sequence <contiguous row houses>
coincide
1 a: to occupy the same place in space or time b: to occupy exactly corresponding or equivalent positions on a scale or in a series

2: to correspond in nature, character, or function

3: to be in accord or agree
ment : concur
garment
noun [C] FORMAL
a piece of clothing
millinery
1 : women's apparel for the head

2 : the business or work of a milliner

milliner
noun [C]
a person who makes or sells women's hats
prohibitive
1 : tending to prohibit or restrain

2 : tending to preclude use or purchase <prohibitive costs>

3 : almost certain to perform as predicted <a prohibitive favorite>
preclude
verb [T] FORMAL
to prevent something or make it impossible, or prevent someone from doing something:
His contract precludes him from discussing his work with anyone outside the company.
The fact that your application was not successful this time does not preclude the possibility of you applying again next time.
peremptory
adjective
expecting to be obeyed immediately and without questioning:
He started issuing peremptory instructions.
She was highly critical of the insensitive and peremptory way in which the cases had been handled.

斷然的,不容置辯的
irrevocable
not possible to revoke : unalterable <an irrevocable decision>
incongruous
adjective
unusual or different from the surroundings or from what is generally happening:
The new computer looked incongruous in the dark book-filled library.
It seems incongruous to have a woman as the editor of a men's magazine.
amalgamate
verb [I or T]
to join or unite to form a larger organization or group, or to make separate organizations do this:
The electricians' union is planning to amalgamate with the technicians' union.
The different offices will be amalgamated as/into employment advice centres.
arrhythmic
lacking rhythm or regularity <arrhythmic locomotor activity>
blithe
1 : of a happy lighthearted character or disposition 2 : lacking due thought or consideration : casual, heedless <blithe unconcern>
disposition
noun
1 [C usually singular] the particular type of character which a person naturally has:
She is of a nervous/cheerful/sunny disposition.

2 [S + to infinitive] FORMAL a natural tendency to do something, or to have or develop something:
a disposition to deceive
conceited
adjective DISAPPROVING
too proud of yourself and your actions and abilities:
Without wishing to sound conceited, I am the best salesperson in the company.
sturdy
adjective
1 physically strong and solid or thick, and therefore unlikely to break or be hurt:
sturdy walking boots
a sturdy table
sturdy little legs

2 [before noun] LITERARY strong and determined:
They put up a sturdy defence of their proposal.
grave
adjective
seriously bad:
a grave situation
polemical
1 a: an aggressive attack on or refutation of the opinions or principles of another b: the art or practice of disputation or controversy —usually used in plural but singular or plural in construction

2: an aggressive controversialist : disputant

爭論的;好爭論的
conciliate
1 : to gain (as goodwill) by pleasing acts

2 : to make compatible : reconcile

3 : appease
precipitate
1. to make something happen suddenly or sooner than expected:
An invasion would certainly precipitate a political crisis.
Fear of losing her job precipitated (= suddenly forced) her into action.

2. to throw someone or something from a height with great force

3.【化】使沈澱;使沈降; 【氣】使(水汽)凝結成雨(或雪等)
deference
respect and esteem due a superior or an elder; also : affected or ingratiating regard for another's wishes
synonym see HONOR

deferential
- respectful and polite:
She is always extremely deferential to/towards anyone in authority.
contempt
noun [U]
a strong feeling of combined dislike and lack of respect:
At school she had complete contempt for all her teachers.
You should treat those remarks with the contempt that they deserve.
She's beneath contempt (= I have no respect for her)!
untoward
1 : difficult to guide, manage, or work with : UNRULY, INTRACTABLE
2 a : marked by trouble or unhappiness : UNLUCKY b : not favorable : ADVERSE, UNPROPITIOUS <untoward side effects>
3 : IMPROPER, INDECOROUS
opprobrious
noun [U] FORMAL
severe criticism and blame:
International opprobrium has been heaped on the country following its attack on its neighbours.

opprobrious
adjective FORMAL
meretricious
adjective FORMAL
seeming attractive but really false or of little value:
He claims that a lot of journalism is meretricious and superficial.

1.(裝飾、文體)俗氣的;浮華的
2. 欺騙性的
innocuous
1 : producing no injury : HARMLESS
2 : not likely to give offense or to arouse strong feelings or hostility : INOFFENSIVE, INSIPID
irreproachable
adjective FORMAL APPROVING
without fault and therefore impossible to criticize:
Her conduct throughout was irreproachable.
veritable
adjective [before noun]
used to describe something as another, more exciting, interesting or unusual thing, as a way of emphasizing its character:
My garden had become a veritable jungle by the time I came back from holiday.
The normally sober menswear department is set to become a veritable kaleidoscope of colour this season.

真可稱得上的;真正的,名副其實的[Z]
impetuous
adjective
1 tending to act on a sudden idea or wish, without considering the results of your actions:
He's so impetuous - why can't he think things over before he rushes into them?

2 An impetuous word or action is said or done suddenly, without considering the likely results:
The Prime Minister may now be regretting her impetuous promise to reduce unemployment by half.

性急的,魯莽的;衝動的
pernicious
adjective FORMAL
having a very harmful effect or influence:
The cuts in government funding have had a pernicious effect on local health services.
specious
adjective FORMAL DISAPPROVING
seeming to be right or true, but really wrong or false:
a specious argument/claim
specious allegations/promises
ascendancy
governing or controlling influence : DOMINATION

1. 優勢,優越
2. 權勢
decimate
a : to reduce drastically especially in number <cholera decimated the population>

b : to cause great destruction or harm to <firebombs decimated the city> <an industry decimated by recession>
denigrate
1 : to attack the reputation of : DEFAME <denigrate one's opponents>
2 : to deny the importance or validity of : BELITTLE <denigrate their achievements>
fabricate
1 a : INVENT, CREATE b : to make up for the purpose of deception <accused of fabricating evidence>

2 : CONSTRUCT, MANUFACTURE; specifically : to construct from diverse and usually standardized parts
jockey
a : to maneuver or manipulate by adroit or devious means <was jockeyed out of the job>

b : to change the position of by a series of movements <jockey a truck into position>
efficacy
an ability, especially of a medicine or a method of achieving something, to produce the intended result; effectiveness:
They recently ran a series of tests to measure the efficacy of the drug.

efficacious
able to produce the intended result; effective

效力,功效
borrowing
something borrowed; especially : a word or phrase adopted from one language into another
riveting
having the power to fix the attention : ENGROSSING, FASCINATING <a riveting story>
engrossing
taking up the attention completely : ABSORBING
conniving
adjective
describes a person who deceives others for their own advantage:
He's a conniving bastard!
upholstery
noun [U]
1 the cloth used for covering a seat and/or the substance used for filling it:
an old sofa with faded green upholstery

2 the activity of upholstering objects

室內裝潢品;(沙發等的)墊襯物
dyslexia
a difficulty with reading and writing caused by the brain's inability to see the difference between some letter shapes
hemophilia
a rare blood disease in which blood continues to flow after a cut or other injury because one of the substances which causes it to thicken does not work correctly

血友病
deride
1 : to laugh at contemptuously
2 : to subject to usually bitter or contemptuous ridicule
fidget
uneasiness or restlessness as shown by nervous movements -- usually used in plural
cower
to lower your head or body in fear, often while moving backwards:
Stop cowering! I'm not going to hit you.
menace
1 : a show of intention to inflict harm : THREAT

2 a : one that represents a threat : DANGER b : a person who causes annoyance
slouch
1 a : an awkward fellow : LOUT b : one that is unimpressive; especially : a lazy or incompetent person -- used in negative constructions <was no slouch at cooking>

2. to stand, sit or walk with the shoulders hanging forward and the head bent slightly over so that you look tired and bored

低頭垂肩的姿勢;沒精打采的姿態;懶散的樣子
vigilant
alertly watchful especially to avoid danger

vigilance
the quality or state of being vigilant
reprimand
a severe or formal reproof (criticism for a fault : REBUKE)
humility
the quality or state of being humble
supplicant
one who supplicates.

2: to ask for earnestly and humbly


懇求者, 懇求的
- to make a humble entreaty (to plead with especially in order to persuade); especially : to pray to God
- to ask humbly and earnestly of
dilettante
1 : an admirer or lover of the arts
2 : a person having a superficial interest in an art or a branch of knowledge : DABBLER
synonym see AMATEUR
inveigle
1 : to win over by wiles : ENTICE
2 : to acquire by ingenuity or flattery : WANGLE <inveigled her way into a promotion>
interest
1 : to induce or persuade to participate or engage
2 : to engage the attention or arouse the interest of
barter
to trade by exchanging one commodity for another
correspond
1 a : to be in conformity or agreement <the ideal failed...to correspond with the reality -- J. R. Sutherland> b : to compare closely : MATCH -- usually used with to or with c : to be equivalent or parallel

2 : to communicate with a person by exchange of letters
parry
1 : to ward off a weapon or blow
2 : to evade or turn aside something

2 : to evade especially by an adroit answer <parried the question>
shirk
1 : to go stealthily : SNEAK
2 : to evade the performance of an obligation
transitive verb : AVOID, EVADE <shirk one's duty>
fauna
all the animals that live wild in a particular area:
particulate
of or relating to minute separate particles
sedentary
1 : not migratory : SETTLED <sedentary birds> <sedentary civilizations>
2 a : doing or requiring much sitting <a sedentary job> b : not physically active <a sedentary lifestyle>
3 : permanently attached <sedentary barnacles>

- 坐著的,需要(或慣於)久坐的
- (鳥等)定棲的;(貝殼)固定附著的
nomadic
1 : of, relating to, or characteristic of nomads (遊牧民) <a nomadic tribe>
2 : roaming about from place to place aimlessly, frequently, or without a fixed pattern of movement
fracas
a noisy quarrel : BRAWL
rapture
1 : an expression or manifestation of ecstasy or passion
2 a : a state or experience of being carried away by overwhelming emotion b : a mystical experience in which the spirit is exalted to a knowledge of divine things

- 使狂喜,使歡天喜地
- 著迷,癡迷
grate
3 : FRET, IRRITATE
- annoys
inerrancy
exemption from error : INFALLIBILITY <the question of biblical inerrancy>
taboo
(an action or word) avoided for religious or social reasons