Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/100

Click to flip

100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
timorous
adjective LITERARY
nervous and lacking confidence; timid
serene
adjective
peaceful and calm; troubled by nothing:
- She has a lovely serene face.
- I admired her serenity in the midst of so much chaos.
incite
verb [T]
to encourage someone to do or feel something unpleasant or violent:
- She incited racial hatred by distributing anti-Semitic leaflets.
- [+ to infinitive] She was expelled for inciting her classmates to rebel against their teachers.
- They denied inciting the crowd to violence.
contemplate
verb [I or T]
to spend time considering a possible future action, or to consider one particular thing for a long time in a serious and quiet way:
- [+ ing form of verb] I'm contemplating going abroad for a year.
- You're not contemplating a change of job, are you?
- It's too awful/horrific/dangerous to contemplate.
dirge
noun [C]
- a slow sad song or piece of music, sometimes played because someone has died
solemn
adjective
1 serious and without any amusement:
- a solemn face/voice
- solemn music
- Everyone looked very solemn.

2 solemn promise/commitment/undertaking, etc. an agreement which you make in a serious way and expect to fulfill
disaffected
adjective
1 no longer supporting or being satisfied with an organization or idea:
- The party needs to take steps to attract disaffected voters.

2 describes young people who are no longer satisfied with society's values:
- The teacher said that he found it difficult to cope with a class of disaffected teenagers.
- disaffected youth
frenetic
adjective
involving a lot of movement or activity; extremely active, excited or uncontrolled:
- After weeks of frenetic activity, the job was finally finished.
- There was frenetic trading on the Stock Exchange yesterday.
germane
adjective FORMAL
describes ideas or information connected with and important to a particular subject or situation:
- Her remarks could not have been more germane to the discussion.
grandeur
the quality of being very large and special or beautiful:
- We were struck by the silent grandeur of the desert.
the grandeur of Wagner's music
hitch
noun [C]
a temporary difficulty which causes a short delay:
- Due to a slight technical hitch the concert will be starting approximately half an hour late.
imperious
adjective
unpleasantly proud and expecting obedience:
- an imperious manner/voice
- She sent them away with an imperious wave of the hand.
servile
adjective DISAPPROVING
too eager to serve and please someone else in a way that shows a lack of respect for yourself:
- As a waiter you want to be pleasant to people without appearing totally servile.
inadequately
adjective
1 not good enough or too low in quality:
This work is woefully (= extremely) inadequate - you'll have to do it again.
Maddie's a real expert on art, so I feel completely inadequate whenever I talk to her about it.

2 too small in amount:
She rejected the $2 million offer as totally inadequate.
incorrigible
adjective MAINLY HUMOROUS
An incorrigible person or behaviour is bad and impossible to change or improve:
an incorrigible liar/rogue
tractable
1 : capable of being easily led, taught, or controlled : DOCILE <a tractable horse>
2 : easily handled, managed, or wrought : MALLEABLE
synonym see OBEDIENT
incredulous
adjective
not wanting or not able to believe something, and usually showing this:
A few incredulous spectators watched as Paterson, ranked 23rd in the world, beat the champion.
install
verb [T]
1 to place someone in an official position:
She has installed a couple of young academics as her advisers.

2 UK install sb/yourself in/at somewhere to put someone/yourself in a comfortable position where you want to stay:
He seems to have installed himself in your spare room for good!
inaugurate
verb [T]
1 to put someone into an official position with a ceremony:
American presidents are always inaugurated on January 20th.

2 to put something into use or action officially:
The European Community inaugurated the Single European Market in 1993.

3 to mark the beginning of a new period, style or activity:
The change of government inaugurated a new era of economic prosperity.
legible
adjective
describes writing or print that can be read easily:
Her handwriting is barely legible.
NOTE: The opposite is illegible.
mar
verb [T] -rr- SLIGHTLY FORMAL
to spoil something, making it less perfect or less enjoyable:
Sadly, the text is marred by careless errors.
It was a really nice day, marred only by a little argument in the car on the way home.
I hope the fact that Louise isn't coming won't mar your enjoyment of the evening.
partisan
adjective
strongly supporting a person, principle or political party, often without considering or judging the matter very carefully:
The audience was very partisan, and refused to listen to the her speech.
partisan politics

noun [C]
1 (in a country which has been defeated) a member of a secret armed force whose aim is to fight against the enemy which is controlling the country

2 someone who supports a person, principle or political party
perspicacious
of acute mental vision or discernment : KEEN
plain
adjective
obvious and clear to understand:
It's quite plain that they don't want to speak to us.
The reason is perfectly plain.
I made it quite plain (that) (= explained clearly that) I wasn't interested.
quandary
noun [C usually singular]
a state of not being able to decide what to do about a situation in which you are involved:
I've had two job offers, and I'm in a real quandary about/over which one to accept.
adventurous
adjective
willing to try new or difficult things, or exciting and often dangerous:
I'm trying to be more adventurous with my cooking.
She led an adventurous life.
He's not very adventurous sexually.
restive
adjective
unwilling to be controlled or be patient:
The audience was becoming restive as they waited for the performance to begin.
toady
noun [C] DISAPPROVING
a person who praises and is artificially pleasant to people in authority, usually in order to get some advantage from them
voluble
1 : easily rolling or turning : ROTATING
2 : characterized by ready or rapid speech : GLIB, FLUENT
synonym see TALKATIVE
terse
adjective
using few words, sometimes in a way that seems rude or unfriendly:
"Are you feeling any better?" "No, " was the terse reply.
proffer
verb [T] FORMAL
to offer something by holding it out, or to offer advice or an opinion:
He shook the warmly proffered hand.
I didn't think it wise to proffer an opinion.
tirade
noun [C]
a long angry speech expressing strong disapproval:
She launched into an angry/furious tirade about how she had been unfairly treated.
In a furious tirade of abuse, the opposition spokesperson demanded the minister's resignation.
dupe
verb [T]
to deceive someone, usually making them do something they did not intend to do:
The girls were duped by drug smugglers into carrying heroin for them.
finesse
noun [U]
great skill or style:
It was a disappointing performance which lacked finesse.

verb [T]
to deal with a situation or a person in a skilful and often slightly dishonest way:
She finessed the interview by playing down her lack of experience and talking about her long-standing interest in the field.
insipid
1 : lacking taste or savor : TASTELESS <insipid food>

2 : lacking in qualities that interest, stimulate, or challenge : DULL, FLAT <insipid prose>
tinge
noun [C]
a very slight amount of a colour or of a feeling:
His hair is starting to show tinges of grey.
I have a tinge of regret that I didn't accept her offer.

verb [T usually passive]
to contain a slight amount of:
Her joy at the birth of her son was tinged with sadness that her father had not lived to see him.
lull
verb [T]
to cause someone to feel calm or to feel as if they want to sleep:
The motion of the car almost lulled her to sleep.

noun [C]
a short period of calm in which little happens:
There has been a lull in the fighting.
a lull in the conversation/traffic
probity
noun [U] FORMAL
complete honesty:
Her probity and integrity are beyond question.
punctilious
marked by or concerned about precise accordance with the details of codes or conventions
synonym see CAREFUL
grotesque
adjective
strange and unpleasant, especially in a ridiculous or slightly frightening way:
By now she'd had so much cosmetic surgery that she looked quite grotesque.
Gothic churches are full of devils and grotesque figures.
abacus
noun [C]
a square or rectangular frame holding an arrangement of small balls on metal rods or wires, which is used for counting, adding and subtracting
inhibit
verb [T]
to prevent someone from doing something, or to slow down a process or the growth of something:
Some workers were inhibited (from speaking) by the presence of their managers.
This drug inhibits the growth of tumours.
abase
2 : to lower in rank, office, prestige, or esteem
abate
verb [I] FORMAL
to become less strong:
The storm/wind/rain has started to abate.
The fighting in the area shows no sign of abating.
dampen
verb [T]
1 (ALSO damp) to make something slightly wet:
Rain had dampened the tent so we left it to dry in the afternoon sun.

2 to make feelings, especially of excitement or enjoyment, less strong:
Nothing you can say will dampen her enthusiasm.
I didn't want to dampen his spirits.
fervent
1 : very hot : GLOWING
2 : exhibiting or marked by great intensity of feeling : ZEALOUS <fervent prayers>
synonym see IMPASSIONED
attenuate
verb [T] FORMAL
to make something smaller, thinner or weaker:
Radiation from the sun is attenuated by the Earth's atmosphere.
taper
verb [I or T]
to become gradually narrower at one end, or to make something do this:
Turn left where the road tapers (off) into a track.
abridge
verb [T]
to make a book, play or piece of writing shorter by removing details and unimportant information:
The book was abridged for children.
abdicate
1 : to cast off : DISCARD
2 : to relinquish (as sovereign power) formally
aberrant
adjective FORMAL
different from what is typical or usual, especially in an unacceptable way:
aberrant behaviour/sexuality
digress
verb [I]
to move away from the main subject you are writing or talking about and to write or talk about something else:
But I digress. To get back to what I was saying, this poem reflects the poet's love of nature and his religious beliefs.
The lecturer temporarily digressed from her subject to deal with a related theory.
abet
1 : to actively second and encourage (as an activity or plan) : FORWARD
2 : to assist or support in the achievement of a purpose <abetted the thief in his getaway>
synonym see INCITE
elucidate
- to make lucid especially by explanation or analysis <elucidate a text>

synonym see EXPLAIN
abhor
: to regard with extreme repugnance : LOATHE
synonym see HATE
abrade
verb [T] SPECIALIZED
to remove part of the surface of something by rubbing
desiccated
adjective
1 dried:
100g of desiccated (= dried and broken into small pieces) coconut

2 DISAPPROVING not interesting or completely lacking in imagination:
All the party seems to have to offer is the same desiccated old ideas.
abscond
verb [I]
to go away suddenly and secretly in order to escape from somewhere:
Two prisoners absconded last night.
She absconded from boarding school with her boyfriend.
pilfer
verb [I or T]
to steal things of small value:
He was caught pilfering (sweets) from the shop.
secrete
verb [T] FORMAL
to put something in a place where it is unlikely to be found:
He was arrested at the airport with a kilo of heroin secreted in his clothing.
lurk
1 a : to lie in wait in a place of concealment especially for an evil purpose b : to move furtively or inconspicuously c : to persist in staying
2 a : to be concealed but capable of being discovered; specifically : to constitute a latent threat b : to lie hidden
abstemious
adjective FORMAL
not doing things which give you pleasure, especially not eating good food or drinking alcohol
intransigent
characterized by refusal to compromise or to abandon an extreme position or attitude : UNCOMPROMISING <intransigent in their opposition> <an intransigent attitude>
abstruse
difficult to comprehend : RECONDITE <the abstruse calculations of mathematicians>
accolade
noun [C] FORMAL
praise and approval:
This is his centennial year and he's been granted the ultimate accolade - his face on a set of three postage stamps.
Her approval was the highest accolade he could have received.
blandishment
something that tends to coax or cajole : ALLUREMENT -- often used in plural
coax
2 : to influence or gently urge by caressing or flattering : WHEEDLE <coaxed him into going>
3 : to draw, gain, or persuade by means of gentle urging or flattery <unable to coax an answer out of him>
4 : to manipulate with great perseverance and usually with considerable effort toward a desired state or activity <coax a fire to burn>
prevaricate
to deviate from the truth : EQUIVOCATE
synonym see LIE
accost
verb [T often passive] FORMAL
to approach or stop and speak to someone in a threatening way:
I'm usually accosted by beggars and drunks as I walk to the station.
importune
adjective FORMAL
1 continually asking for something, in a forceful and annoying way:
an importunate beggar/crowd
accrete
intransitive verb : to grow or become attached by gradual increase or growth by the addition of new layers or parts

transitive verb : to cause to adhere or become attached; also : ACCUMULATE
achromatic
Function: adjective
1 : refracting light without dispersing it into its constituent colors : giving images practically free from extraneous colors <an achromatic telescope>
2 : not readily colored by the usual staining agents
3 : possessing no hue : being or involving black, gray, or white : NEUTRAL <achromatic visual sensations>
4 : being without accidentals or modulation : DIATONIC

1. 無色的
2. 消色差的
extraneous
adjective
not directly connected with or related to something:
extraneous information
These questions are extraneous to the issue being discussed.
acme
noun [S] LITERARY
the highest point of perfection or achievement:
To act on this world-famous stage is surely the acme of any actor's career.
acquit
verb [T often passive] -tt-
to decide officially in a court of law that someone is not guilty of a particular crime:
She was acquitted of all the charges against her.
Five months ago he was acquitted on a shoplifting charge.

aquittal
noun [C or U]
disentangle
Function: verb
transitive verb : to free from entanglement : UNRAVEL
intransitive verb : to become disentangled
synonym see EXTRICATE
snarl
1 : to cause to become knotted and intertwined : TANGLE
2 : to make excessively complicated
acrid
1 : sharp and harsh or unpleasantly pungent in taste or odor : IRRITATING
2 : deeply or violently bitter : ACRIMONIOUS <an acrid denunciation>
guile
noun [U] FORMAL
clever but sometimes dishonest behaviour that you use to deceive someone:
The President will need to use all her political guile to stay in power.
He is a simple, honest man, totally lacking in guile.
evanescent
adjective FORMAL
lasting for only a short time, then disappearing quickly and being forgotten
refractory
1 : resisting control or authority : STUBBORN, UNMANAGEABLE
2 a : resistant to treatment or cure <a refractory lesion> b : unresponsive to stimulus c : IMMUNE, INSUSCEPTIBLE <after recovery they were refractory to infection>
3 : difficult to fuse, corrode, or draw out; especially : capable of enduring high temperature
synonym see UNRULY
addendum
noun [C] plural addenda SPECIALIZED
something that has been added to a book, speech or document
impromptu
adjective
done or said without earlier planning or preparation:
an impromptu party/performance
admonish
verb FORMAL
1 [T] to tell someone that they have done something wrong:
His mother admonished him for eating too quickly.

2 [T + to infinitive] to advise someone to do something:
Her teacher admonished her to work harder for her exams.
adorn
verb [T] LITERARY
to add something decorative to a person or thing:
The bride's hair was adorned with pearls and white flowers.
adroit
adjective
very skilfull and quick in the way you think or move:
an adroit reaction/answer/movement of the hand
She became adroit at dealing with difficult questions.
ungainly
1 a : lacking in smoothness or dexterity : CLUMSY <ungainly movements> b : hard to handle : UNWIELDY <an ungainly contraption>
2 : having an awkward appearance <a large ungainly bird>
succinct
adjective APPROVING
said in a clear and short way; expressing what needs to be said without unnecessary words:
Keep your letter succinct and to the point.
inept
adjective
not skilled or effective:
an inept comment/remark
He was always rather inept at sport.
He was criticized for his inept handling of the situation.
Dick was socially inept and uncomfortable in the presence of women.
adulterate
verb [T always passive]
to make food or drink weaker or to lower its quality, by adding something else:
There were complaints that the beer had been adulterated with water.
bolster
verb [T]
to support or improve something or make it stronger:
More money is needed to bolster the industry.
She tried to bolster my confidence/morale (= encourage me and make me feel stronger) by telling me that I had a special talent.
They need to do something to bolster their image.
pillory
verb [T]
to severely criticize someone, especially in a public way:
Although regularly pilloried by the press as an obnoxious loudmouth, he is, nonetheless, an effective politician.
aerate
verb [T]
1 to add a gas to liquid, especially a drink:
aerated water

2 to allow air to act on something:
Earthworms help to aerate the soil.
aerated soil
gourmand
1 : one who is excessively fond of eating and drinking
2 : one who is heartily interested in good food and drink
synonym see EPICURE
epistemology
noun [U] SPECIALIZED
the part of philosophy that is about the study of how we know things
affected
adjective DISAPPROVING
artificial and not sincere:
an affected manner/style of writing
I found her very affected.
artless
adjective
simple and honest; not wanting to deceive:
"Why did you take the money?" she asked the child. "Because I wanted it, " came the artless reply.
affidavit
noun [C]
a written statement which someone makes after they have sworn officially to tell the truth, and which might be used as proof in a court of law
pigment
noun [C or U]
a substance which gives something a particular colour when it is present in it or is added to it:
Melanin is the dark brown pigment of the hair, skin and eyes which is present in varying amounts in every human being.
Pigment is mixed into oil, glue, egg, etc. to make different types of paint.
meadow
noun [C or U]
a field with grass and often wild flowers in it:
There was a path through the meadow to the village.