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251 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a scribe
Professional Writer
What kind of belief did the Sumerians have
What does specialize mean
Doing one kind of work
What is an artisan
Producer of goods such as pots (items people make)
What is cuneiform
Form of writing
What does barter mean
Exchange goods
A Mesopotamian temple was called what
What are the five traits used to categorize a civilization
Cities, advanced technology, specialized labor, complex institutions, and writing
How did the Sumerians overcome the problems of flooding rivers and dry climate
They irrigated and built levies
What kind of resources did Sumer not have
Stone, wood, and metals
How did Sumerians overcome the problems presented by their flant landscape
They built city walls
Were women allowed to become priest
Who were allowed to be scribes
Who were the most important people in Sumer
What other jobs did priests have other than religious duties
Collected taxes, managed irrigation systems, told farmers when to plant, and employed/paid people
Who were the most important gods to Sumerians
Nature gods
What were the characteristics of a Sumerian god
Arbitrary (based what they expected on what they wanted), supernatural, and immortal
What was after-life like for Sumerians
Same gloomy place for every one
What were the inventions of the Sumerians
Wheel, plow, and sailboat
Were Sumerians peaceful
No, they were almost in constant warfare with other city-states
Who were the public words organized and run by
What developed in Sumer to make trade easier
What was the status of women like
They could be lower-ranking priests, and own and inherit land, but they could not be scribes
What is the order of leadership in Sumer
1) Priests ruled; 2) War leaders were appointed; 3) War leaders became permanent; 4) Sons inherited leaderhsip role from fathers
Who were the taxes collected by
What did Sumerians write on
Clay tablets
Was cuneiform hard to learn
Yes because it was pictures it had a lot of symbols to learn
What does Mesopotamia refer to
The land between the Tigris and Euphrates
What is Hammurabi's code
A set of laws that applied all over the empire
What was the goal of Hammurabi's code
Cause justice to prevail; Destroy wicked and evil; prevent the strong from oppressing the weak; enlighten the land; welfare the people
What did principles did Hammurabi's code enfore
An eye for an eye; applied to everyone though punishment depended on your status; government had responsibility for the welfare of its people
Who is the father of Judaism
Judaism was a belief in one God called
What was the covenant between God and the Jews
God would take care of the Jews if he obeyed his laws
What is the good in having an alphabet
It had fewer symbols
How did the Assyrians enforce their laws
Through fear
How did the Persians enfore their laws
Through kindess
What were the stargazers of Babylon
Why did the Chaldeans gaze at the stars
They believed stars guided human destiny
What did the Persians do to guide their empire
Divided the empire into provinces and put governors in charge of each province
Who is Cyrus
The first important Persian king
Who is Nebuchadnezzar
Most important king of Babylon- of the Chaldeans
What are the Ten Commandments
The set of laws followed by the Jews/Hebrews
What start the alphabet over pictographs
Who believed in the Zorasterism beliefs
What was the Zoroasterism beliefs
Two forces fight for a person's soul- good and bad
Why is the Nineveh library important
World's largest library at the time, 25000 clay tablets, with a lot of info. on Mesopotamia
Who was the Nineveh library important to
What are satraps
A governor for each Persian province
What people were the satraps important to
Why is purple die important
It is the main prophet for the Phoenicians
How do the Phoenicians get the purple dye
From snails
Which people used astrology, astronomy, and the zodiac
Who had a belief in one god
Who believed in the struggle between forces of good and evil
Who believed in paradise and fiery pit
Who made standard coins, weights, and measures
Who had hanging gardens
Who had a well-trained army, very disciplined, and cruel
Who was Hammurabi's Code important to
Who are the Hebrew prophets
Isaiah, Micah, and Jeremiah
Who were the Hebrew kings?
David, Solomon, and Saul
Who were the most powerful traders in the Mediterranean world
Who is Assurbinipal
The most famous Assyrians king
Who believed that tolerance towards conquered people could governor people
Who created a system of roads
The Ch'in Dynasty is known for
Being the meanest
The Chou Dynasty is known for
Being the longest
The Han Dynasty is known for
Being the nicest (defeated the Huns)
The Shang Dynasty is known for
Being the earliest
What dynasty had the first emporer
During what dynasty did Confucious live and teach
During which dynasty was the Great Wall built
Which dynasty made the tomb with terra cotta soldiers
Which dynasty had their language written on oracle bones
Which dynasty had the first cities
What is the order of dynasties
1) Shang 2) Chou 3) Ch'in 4) Han
What two rivers encompass China
Yellow and Yangtze
What is the heartland of China
The land between the Yellow and Yangtze rivers
What cut China off from the rest of Asia in the southwest
Who is the most important loyalty for traditional Chinese to
Who had the ultimate right to decide marriages, and control hte family businesses in a Chinese family
Oldest male
How could women improve their status
Have a son
Why were sons so important in Ancient China
They performed hte rituals that kept hte ancestors happy
What was the Mandate from Heaven
The approval for an emperor's rule came from heaven
What is filial piety
Respect for elders
What were the two crafts at which the Shang artisans excelled
Bronze and silk
What was a good aspect of Chinese writing
No matter what language you spoke, you could read it
What is a bad aspect of Chinese writing
There were a whole lot of symbols to know, therefore the average person was illiterate
What are the five relationships Confucius taught
1) Ruler-ruled 2) Father-son 3) Husband-wife 4) Friend-friend 5) Older sibling-younger sibling
According to Taoists what, what is the way to achieve contentment and happiness
Try to follow the natural order
What was the most famous/start of Taoism
According to legalists society best functioned how
When there were stiff punishments for people who broke the law, and good rewards (in practice there were few awards0
what are the analects
The writings of Confucius
Who was the greatest Ch'in emporer
Who was the greatest Han emporer
Did nobles in Egyptian society have much to do
What was the role of women in Egyptian society
They could be almost anything they wanted to be, one woman even proclaimed herself a pharaoh
What did children under 12 wear
They wore no clothing, but the boys and girls wore golden ornaments around their necks. The girls also wore strings of beads their waist
How could someone of the lower class advance
Through service to the pharaoh, especially through the army
What did an Egyptian have to be able to do in order to advance in society
Be able to write
What gives us information about the lives of peasants
Information about peasant life comes from wall paintings in tombs
Who were the slaves in Egyptian society
The slaves were captives from the many wars the Egyptians fought during the New Kingdom
What is "maat"
Maat was the idea of justice, right, truth, and order
What happened to a person in afterlife if they had committed evil deeds
Their heart tipped the scale and the Devourer of Souls would pounce on the impure heart and gobble it up
How did Akhenaten try to change Egyptian beliefs
He said that the sun god, Aton, was the only true god
Why were the priests so powerful in Egypt
The priests were so powerful because people believed they had charms and chants that could protect the living and the dead
EWhat was Egyptian writing called
In order to redraw the borders of fields after a flood, Egyptians need some knowledge about what branch of mathematics
What were Egyptians able to do in medicine
They knew how to check a pulse, and they were able to deal with broken bones, wounds, and fevers
What is teh mountain range that lies between India and China
What is the level, fertile heartland of India
Indus-Ganges plain
How do scholars think the ancient Indus civilization ended
1) Invasion of nomds from north of Himalayas 2) River changed course 3) Overuse of land
What do Hindus believe after death
They believe that a person is reincarnated and the inner self is reborn in a different form
What is the Hindu caste system
A system in which there are different caste, each one having less and less importance and you can only move up in your caste by doing good deeds in this life to move up in the next life
What do Hindus believe about Brahman
1) Many gods, but all are a part of Brahman 2) All living things are a part of Brahman 3) Once you reach moksha, you are no longer reborn and you become one with Brahman 4) One aspect of Brahman is Self, or soul 5) Brahman is a unifying and all-powerful spirit
What is maksha
Perfect understanding
What was Siddhartha Gautama
He was a spoiled prince who could not see suffering
Who did Siddhartha Gautama become
According to Buddhism, how can people overcome their desires and attain enlightment
Eightfold Path
What is the goal of Buddhism
What is nirvana
Release from pain and suffering
What is dharma
Determines what is good
Who is Ashoka
He is a Mauryan leader and was characterized by rule through public announcement; known for spreading Buddhism; and protecting of the welfare of Indians of all castes
What did the teachings of Buddha include
Life cycle of pain is by seeking wisdom
What is the climate of India largely determined by
Monsoons which are seasonal winds
The Indian civilization began near what
River valley (between Yellow and Yangtze)
What was the Yellow River nicknamed
China's Sorrow
What is the order of Indian leadership/government
1) Indus River civilization 2) Aryan invasion 3) Persian rule 4) Alexander the Great 5) Chandrgupta 6) Ashoka 7) Buddhism
What did the caste system to do Indians
Divided them into distinct social groups
Put these events in order: 1) Building of Harappa 2) Invasion by Persians 3) Hindu religion 4) Aryan invasion
1) Harappa 2) Aryan invasion 3) Hinduism 4) Persian invasion
Put the following religion with each example
Put the following religion with each example
People suffer because they have selfish desires
People suffer because of what they have done in their previous life
Four Noble Truths
Many gods that are forms of the one god
Eightfold Path
No complex rituals
Right meditation
The way to end suffering is to give up desires
Which of following was the leader of Athens during its golden ages
What are the dates of the Golden Age
480-430 B.C.
What is the Parthenon
It is considered one of the greatest monuments of Greek architecture because it had excellent design and craftsmanship
Greek art of the golden age showed what traits of a person
Proportion, serenity, order, and balance
Who were the two most famous tragic playwrights
Sophocles and Aeschylus
What wre theatres in ancient Greece
OUtdoor theatres called ampitheatres
What was the role of the chorus in a Greek play
Comment on the action to help the plot move along
what is excessive pride
What is the emotional cleansing a Greek experienced attending a Greek play
What was the city of Athens like
Dirty, smelly, and noisy
What were houses in Athens like
Tiny with thin, mud-brick walls and they had little furniture/decoration
What was Athens' major trading item
What was Athens' strategy in the Pelopponesian War
Destroy Sparta's allies and colonies by sea
What was Sparta's strategy in the Pelopponesian War
Destroy Athens' food supply
Why did Athens eventually lose
Plague and defeat in Sicily
What did Socrates teach
To question everything
Why was Socrates condemned to die
He was accused to corrupting the youth
What did Plato teach
The best government is ruled by the wisest
What did Aristotle teach
A way of thinking logically by using a syllogism
What is the name of the sea which the Greek civilization developed
What is the largest island near the Greek mainland on which the Minoan civilization developed
What is arete
The ideal of excellence and honor
What was the political unti of which the Greeks were a part of
What is a city-state called
What were the Greek gods like
They were much like humans
Who were considered Greek citizens
Free, native-born males
How did the geography of Greece influence the region's development
Divided it into a number of small regions; provided good harbors on inlets and bays; limited farming, but encouraged trading
What was the day like for a guy in Greece
Taking an active part in civic life; discussing public issues in the market place; and attending religious festivals
What was the Greek battle formation using a wall of shields called
What type of government developed in Athens
What is rule by a small group of nobles called
What is the result of the PErsian Wars
Increased power and pride for Athens
What was the goal of the people of Sparta
Keep their city powerful
What was Themistocles' plan for winning the final Persian War
Using the Athenian army to defeat the Persians and abandoning the city
What is the Greek marketplace called
What is a Greek foot soldier armed with iron weapons called
What is a Messinian forced to work the land for Spartans called
Were there many rivers connecting cities in Greece
Where did the Mycenaean civilizatin arise
The Greek mainland
What advanced technology did the Minoans have
Water, bathtubs, and flush-toilets
What indicated that life for the Minoans was pleasant
Wall paintings
Who destroyed the Mycenaean civilization
Peoples of the Sea
What is storyteller like Homer called
What was the largest of the Greek polises
What is the order of government in Greece
1) Warrior/kings 2) Nobles 3) Tyrants 4) Democracy
What was the effect of introducing iron in Greece
The common people had weapons
Did Spartan women have many rights
Yes, more than Athenian women
Who is one of the great reformers of government in Athens
Who added the Council of 500 to the governing body of the assembly
What was the role of the Council of 500
Advise the assembly
What was the Struggle of Orders?
attempt by plebeians to increase their power increase their political power that led to the creation of Tribunes and the Twelve Tables
What is the name of the mountain chain in northern Italy?
Describe Italy's location
centrally located in the Mediterranean basin allowing trade and conquest
Who were the patricians?
powerful nobility of Rome
What were the responsibilities of Roman citizenship?
pay taxes and serve in the military
Describe Rome's republic.
representative democracy; consuls possessed the power to veto; assemblies and senate proposed laws
Who fought in the Punic Wars?
Rome and Carthage
What were the effects of the Punic Wars?
destruction of Carthage; Roman trade expanded; increased wealth; gap between patricians and plebeians; increased slavery; unemployment; latifundias
Where is Gaul?
modern-day France
Where is Carthage?
northern Africa
What were the laws of Rome's republic?
Twelve Tables
What right did the Twelve Tables ensure?
all people were equal before law; innocent until proven guilty
Which civilization colonized Carthage?
Who was the Carthaginian general who attacked Rome?
Who made up the First Triumvirate?
Caesar, Pompey, Crassus
Who was Scipio?
Roman general who defeated Carthage
What were the Tribunes?
representatives of the plebeians who posssessed the power to veto
What were the two main classes of Roman society?
patricians and plebeians
Before being a republic, what type of government did Rome have?
Etruscan king/monarchy
What powers did consuls have?
executives who could veto, ran the day-to-day affairs of government, led army
Why was Caesar killed?
he became too powerful
Who killed Caesar?
the senators (Brutus and Cassius)
What happened to Rome following the assassination of Caesar?
Civil War; Octavian emereged as emperor
What was the purpose of Caesar's reforms?
to increase his power; give more power to plebeians
Who were the plebeians?
List 3 facts about Caesar?
he was a great general, he was liked by the plebeians, he took the title dictator for life, he was killed by senators who felt he was attempting to become king
What were the results of the Pax Romana?
uniform system of money, uniform code of laws, travel and trade increased, stressed family values
Who attempted to improve the governing of Rome by dividing the Empire?
What language did Romans speak?
Why was the language of Rome very important?
it formed the basis for our Romance languages of today
What was the Colosseum?
stadium for gladiatorial combat
As Christianity developed, who assumed the leadership of the Catholic Church?
pope/Bishop of Rome
Why did many Romans oppose Christianity?
it went against their polytheistic beliefs, they blamed Christians for plagues and famines, it was a threat to the emperor's power
The first emperor of Rome took this title
The writings of Jesus' followers are collected in this book?
New Testament
What happened to trade during the Pax Romana?
What is a civil service?
long-term government employees who are chosen based on their training and skills
Who wrote the Aenied?
What was the purpose of Virgil's Aenied?
promote traditional Roman values
Why did the Roman Empire experience inflation?
increased territorial spending and military spending
What is the Pax Romana?
200 year period of peace and prosperity
The roots for Christianity are found in which religion?
Who was the Christian messiah?
Where do the name for our planets come from?
Roman gods
Which Roman emperor legalized Christianity?
Who was the apostle responsible for spreading Christianity throughout the Roman Empire?
Who moved Rome's capital to Byzantium?
Who did Augustus defeat to become emperor?
Marc Antony
During the Pax Romana what happened to the Rome's territory?
increased slightly
Who was Rome's first emperor?
Which emperor began the Pax Romana?
What event(s) marked the end of the Roman Republic?
Caesar's assassination and the civil war that followed