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33 Cards in this Set

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the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species
phylogeny
the ordered array in which fossils appear within layers,or strata, of sedimentary rocks that mark the passing of geologic time
fossil record
reflects a consistent sequence of historical periods
geologic time scale
the measurement of certain radioactive isotopes in fossils or rocks
radiometric dating
the number of years it takes for 50% of the original sample to decay
half-life
the supercontinent formed near the end of the Palezoic ear when plate movements brought all the landmasses of Earth together
Pangaea
the study of biological diversity in an evolutionary context
systematics
a two-part latinized name
binomial
the first part of a binomial
genus
the second part of a binomial
specific epithet
a group whose members posses similar anatomical characteristics and have the ability to interbreed
species
the taxonomic category above genus
family
the taxonomic category above family
order
the taxonomic category above order
class
the taxonomic category above class
phylum
the taxonomic category above phyla
kingdom
the taxonomic category above kingdom
domain
the named taxonomic unit at any level
taxon
reflect the hierarchical classification of taxonomic groups nested within more inclusive groups
phylogenetic trees
a phylogenetic diagram based on cladistics
cladogram
each evolutionary branch in a cladogram
clade
a taxon derived from a singke ancestral species that gave rise to no species in any other taxa
monophyletic
likeness attributed to shared ancestry
homology
species from different evolutionary branches may come to resemble one another if they have similar ecological roles and natural selection has shaped analogous adaptations
convergent evolution
similarity due to convergence
analogy
a homology common to a taxon more inclusive than the one we're trying to define
shared primitve characer
an evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade
shared derived character
a species or group of species that is closely related to the species we are studying
outgroup
the five vertebrates we are studying make up this
ingroup
systematics propose replacing the Linnaean system with a strictly cladistic classification called this
phylocode
states that a theory about nature should be the simplest explanation that is consistent with the facts
parsimony
an independent method for placing the origin of taxonomic groups in time
molecular clocks
a hypothesis about mammalian history that is between two extremes
phylogenetic fuse