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25 Cards in this Set

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a molecule whose opposite ends have opposite charges
polar
the bonds that hold hydrogen and oxygen atoms together in water molecules
single covalent
the bonds that form between the H and O ends of different water molecules
hydrogen bonds
the charge of the O end in a water molecule
slightly negative
the charge of the H end in a water molecule
slightly positive
the phenonmenon that accounts for water molecules clinging to one another; caused by H-bonding
cohesion
the clinging of one substance to another, such as water molecules to the sides of a glass tube
adhesion
a measure of how difficult it is to break or stretch the surface of a liquid
surface tension
a measure of the total kinetic energy in matter
heat
a measure of the average kinetic energy in matter
temperature
the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of a substance to change 1 degree Celsius
specific heat
the cooling of a surface due to the evaporation of molecules at the surface ("hottest" molecules leave)
evaporative cooling
a liquid that is a completely homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
solution
the dissolving agent in a solution
solvent
the substance that is dissolved in a solution
solute
a sphere of water molecules surrounding each dissolved ion in a solution
hydration shell
any substance that has an affinity for water
hydrophilic
non-ionic or nonpolar substances that repel water
hydrophobic
a single proton with a charge of +1
hydrogen ion
a water molecule that has lost a proton
hydroxide ion
a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
acid
a substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
base
the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution
pH
a substance that can both accept and donate hydrogen ions in a solution
buffer
What happens to hydrogen ion concentration as pH increases by 3?
it decreases 1000 times