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60 Cards in this Set

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a diverse group of organisms that includes mostly unicellular motile eukaryotes; used to be grouped as a kingdom
protists
organisms such as Euglena that combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition
mixotrophs
animal-like protists that ingest their food
protozoa
fungus-like protists that absorb their food
absorptive protists
plant-like protists that perform photosynthesis
algae
the union of 2 gametes
syngamy
resistant protist cells that can survive harsh conditions
cysts
mostly microscopic organisms that drift or swim weakly near the surface of water
plankton
planktonic eukaryotic algae and prokaryotic cyanobacteria
phytoplankton
Does evidence suggest that eukaryotic cells evolved from a single prokaryotic ancestor or multiple prokaryotic ancestors?
multiple!
general term for eukaryotic organelles such as chloroplasts
plastids
theory that mitochondria and plastids were formerly small prokaryotes living within larger cells in a symbiotic relationship
endosymbiosis
the scientist credited with developing modern theory of serial endosymbiosis
Lynn Margulis
Are modern mitochondria and plastids best described as self-sufficient or semi-autonomous?
semi-autonomous (they cannot carry out all of their intracellular functions outside of the cell)
the engulfing of cyanobacteria by eukaryote ancestors, allowing them to acquire plastids
primary endosymbiosis
the engulfing of an alga containing plastids by a heterotrophic protist (eukaryote engulfing eukaryote)
secondary endosymbiosis
What does the number of membranes surrounding a plastid suggest about a protist's evolutionary history?
2 membranes = primary endosymbiosis
more than 2 membranes = secondary endosymbiosis
(each endosymbiotic event adds a membrane)
What unique ability of prokaryotes accounts for the evolution of Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya from a community of cells rather than a single species?
gene transfer between species (plasmids/transformation & transduction)
What 3 types of data is the modern tentative phylogeny of eukaryotes based upon?
molecular (nucleic acid & protein)
cell structure
life cycle
group of protists that lack mitochondria and plastids, have multiple flagella, and two seperate nuclei
diplomonads
group of protists that lack mitochondria; includes Trichomonas vaginalis
parabasalids
group of protists characterized by an anterior pockect with 2 flagella, paramylon, and usually autotrophy
euglenoids
group of protists containing a single large mitochondrion and a kinetoplast that contains extranuclear DNA
kinetoplastids
group of protists that have small membrane-bound cavities (alveoli); includes dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates
alveolates
explosive population growth of these protists causes red tides
dinoflagellates
this group of parasitic protists form sporozoites with a complex of organelles specialized for pentrating host cells and tissues
apicomplexans
tiny infectious cells containing organelles for penetrating host cells
sporozoites
the genus of protists that cause malaria
Plasmodium
group of protists named for their use of cilia to move and feed; includes Paramecia
ciliates
the swapping of micronuclei among Paramecium (sexual shuffling of genes)
conjugation
group of protists that includes oomycoytes, diatoms, golden algae, and brown algae
stramenophila
includes water molds, white rusts, and downy mildews
oomycotes
group of protists with glasslike 2-piece shells made of silica
diatoms
group of protists containing yellow and brown carotenes and xanthopylls
golden algae (chrysophytes)
group of large, multicellular, brown/olive-colored algae
brown algae (phaeophytes)
a seaweed body that is plantlike but lacking true roots, stems, and leaves
thallus
rootlike part of a thallus that anchors the alga
holdfast
stemlike part of a thallus
stipe
leaflike parts of a thallus where most photosynthesis occurs
blades
a complex life cycle that includes both multicellular haploid forms and multicellular diploid forms
alternation of generations
diploid individuals that produce reproductive spores
sporophytes
haploid individuals that produce gametes
gametophytes
occurs when sporophytes and gametophytes are structurally different
heteromorphic generations
occurs when sporophytes and gametophytes differ in chromosome number but look identical
isomorphic generations
a group of eukaryotic algae that have no flagellated stage in their life cycle and contain phycoerythrin
red algae (rhodophytes)
group of algae most closely related to land plants
green algae (chlorophytes)
mutualistic association between chlorophytes and fungi
lichens
cellular extensions that allow movement and feeding in some protists
pseudopodia
group of protists that are all unicellular and use pseudopodia to move and feed
amoeboas (rhizopods)
group of protists that includes both radiolarians and heliozoans
actinopods
the name of this group of freshwater actinopods means "sun animals"
heliozoans
this group of mostly marine actinopods has silica skeletons fused into one piece
radiolarians
this group of marine protists is characterized by mulit-chambered, porous, calcium carbonate shells
foraminiferans (forams)
the scientific name of this group of protists means "fungus animals"; their common name is slime molds
mycetozoa
this group of slime molds has a feeding stage consisting of many nuclei in a single mass of cytoplasm
plasmodial slime molds
this group of slime molds consists of a haploid feeding stage in which individual cells remain separated by membranes
cellular slime molds
Protists are:
a)unicellular
b) multicellular
c) colonial
d)multinucleate
All of these!
Protists are:
a)photoautotrophs
b)heterotrophs
c)mixotrophs
All of these!
Protists live in:
a)marine habitats
b)freshwater habitats
c)hosts
d)soil/land habitats
All of these!
Did multicellularity evolve once or several times independently?
Several times (seaweeds & multicellular protists, plants, fungi, and animals)