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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
organisms that produce their own organic molecules through carbon dioxide and other inorganic molecules
autotrophs
organisms that obtain their organic material by consuming other organisms
heterotrophs
the green pigment located in chloroplasts
chlorophyll
the tissue in the interior of leaves
mesophyll
microscopic pores in leaves
stomata
an electron acceptor in the light reactions of photosynthesis
NADP+
the generation of ATP by the addition of a phosphate group to ADP
photophosphorylation
the initial incorporation of carbon from the atmosphere into organic compounds
carbon fixation
the distance between the crests of electromagnetic waves (measured in nm)
wavelength
the entire range of radiation
electromagnetic spectrum
light between 380 and 750 nm
visible light
discrete particles of light that have fixed energy
photons
an instrument that can measure the ability of a pigment to absorb various light wavelengths
spectrophotometer
a graph plotting a pigment's light absorption
absorption spectrum
chlorophyll type that absorbs light best at 430 and 670 nm
chlorophyll a
chlorophyll type that absorbs best at 470 and 640 nm
chlorophyll b
pigments that are various shades of yellow and orange
carotenoids
complexes of chlorophyll and proteins in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts
photosystems
the region of a photosystem where the first light-driven chemical reaction of photosynthesis occurs
reaction center
the molecule in a photosystem that gains an electron from a chlorophyll a molecule
primary electron acceptor
P700; the photosystem that passes electrons to NADP+
Photosystem I
p680; the photosystem that passes electrons down an electron transport chain to photosystem I
Photosystem II
the path of light-driven electrons from water to NADPH, through PII and PI
noncyclic electron flow
ATP synthesis during noncyclic electron flow; occurs through chemiosmosis and produces more ATP
noncyclic photophosphorylation
ATP synthesis during cyclic electron flow; less ATP is produced through chemiosmosis; no oxygen is released and no NADPH produced
cyclic photophosphorylation
the path of electrons from PI back to the cytochrome complex and PI again
cyclic electron flow
the "dark reactions" or light-independent reactions of photosynthesis
Calvin cycle
a 3-C sugar produced directly from the Calvin cycle
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
(G3P)
the enzyme that catalyzes the "fixing" of carbon dioxide to ribulose bisphosphate
rubisco
plants in which rubisco is used to fix carbon dioxide to ribulose bisphosphate
C-3
a metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen, releases carbon dioxide, generates no ATP, and decreases photosynthetic output
photorespiration
plants that employ an alternate mode of carbon fixation that forms a 4-carbon compound; calvin cycle occurs in bundle sheath cells
C-4
specialized cells in C-4 plants where the Calvin cycle occurs; impermeable to carbon dioxide
bundle sheath cells
loosely arranged cells in C-4 plants where PEP carboxylase fixes carbon dioxide
mesophyll cells
the enzyme in C-4 plants that adds carbon dioxide to phosphoenolpyruvate
PEP carboxylase
plants that open their stomata at night and close them during the day; take up carbon dioxide and incorporate it into a variety of organic acids
CAM (crassulacean acid metabolism) plants
a stack of thylakoids
granum
the fluid surrounding the grana in a chloroplast; location of the Calvin cycle
stroma
location of PII, the ETC, PI, and ATP synthase in chloroplasts
thylakoid membrane
location in chloroplasts where water is split and H+ concentration is relatively high
thylakoid space