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48 Cards in this Set

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a giant molecule formed by teh joining of smaller molecules
macromolecule
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
polymer
small molecules
monomer
monomers connecting by covalent bonds through loss of a water molecule
condensation reaction
molecule lost is water
dehydration reaction
break with water
hydrolysis
sugars and thier polymers
carbohydrates
have the genral formula CH(2)O; glucose
monsaccharides
two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage
disaccharide
covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides
glycosidic linkage
polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharies
polysaccharides
a storage plysaccharide in plants
strach
a polysaccharide stored by animals
glycogen
polysaccharide tha make up tough cell walls in plants
cellulose
used by insects, spiders, crustaceans and related animals to build their exoskeletons
chitin
cmpounds tht have little or no affinity for water
lipid
two kinds of smaller molecules: glycerol adn fatty acids
fat
has a long carbon skeleton (16-18 carbon atoms in length)
fatty acid
3 fatty acids limkd to oneglycerol molecules
triacyglycerol
fatty acd on which all carbons in ht ehydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds
saturated fatty acid
has one or more doubl bonds formed by the removal of hydrogen atoms from the carbon skeleton
unsaturated fatty acid
similar to fatty acids but have two faty acid tails instead of three
phosophlipids
lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consiting of four fused rings
steriods
a steiod; is a common component of animal cell mebranes
cholesterol
polymers of amino acids
polypeptides
consists of one or morepolypeptides folded and coiled into specific confrimations
protein
organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino acid groups
amino acid
covalent bond between two mino acid units formed by a dehydration reaction
peptide bond
it is the unique sequence of amino acids in a protein
primary structure
coils and folds in protein structure
secondary structure
other main type of secndary structure in which two or more regions of the polypeptide chain lie parallel to each other
B-pleated sheet
consistig of irregular contorions from interactons of the various amino groups
tetiary structure
a type of weak chemical bond formed hen molecules that do notmix with wter coalesce to exclude the water
hydropholic interaction
two cysteine monomers brought together by the folding of the protein
disuflide bridges
overall protein structre that results from the aggregationof these polypeptide subunits
qunternary structure
unraveling of a protein due to pH, salt conctration, temperature or other aspect changes
denature
protein moelcules that assist the proper folding or other proteins
chaperonins
main method used to determine the exact 3 dimensional structure of a protein
X-Ray crystallography
a unit of inheritance
gene
a polymer consiting of many nucleotide monomers
nucleic acids
two types of nucleic acids
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)
nitrogenious base; has a six-membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms
pyrimindine
six-membered ring fused to a five-membered ring
purines
polymers of monomers
nucleotides
the pentose connected to the nitrogenous base
ribose
the pentose conected to te nitrogenous base in the nucleotides of RNA
deoxyribose
nucleic aid polymer
polymucleotide
two polynucleides that spiral around an imagenary axis
double helix