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29 Cards in this Set

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A partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the help of oxygen. Alcohol and Lactic are two examples.
Fermentation
Oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel. A catabolic pathway for the production of ATP.
Cellular Respiration
Oxidation-Reduction reactions
Redox Reactions
The loss of electrons from one substance
Oxidation
The addition of electrons to another substance.
Reduction
The electron donor.
Reducing Agent
The electron acceptor.
Oxidizing Agent.
(Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) a conenzyme present in all cells that helps enzymes transfer electrons during the redox reactions of metabolism.
NAD+
Breaks the fall of electrons to oxygen into several energy-releasing steps instead of one explosive reaction.
Electron Transport Chain
The degradation of glucose by breaking glucose into two molecules of a compound called pyruvate.
Glycolosis
Decomposes a derivative of pyruvate to carbon dioxide.
Krebs cycle
The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain.
Oxidative Phosphorylation
The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
Substrate Phosphorylation
The entry compound for the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration.
Acetyl coA
A component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplast.
Cytochrome
Decomposes a derivative of pyruvate to carbon dioxide.
Krebs cycle
The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain.
Oxidative Phosphorylation
The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
Substrate Phosphorylation
The entry compound for the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration.
Acetyl coA
A component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplast.
Cytochrome
The enzyme that actually makes ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.
ATP Synthesis
The potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis.
Proton-Motive Force
Coupling mechanism between the chemical reaction that makes ATP and transport across a membrane.
Chemiosmosis
Oxygen is present.
Aerobic
Oxygen is not present.
Anaerobic
The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.
Alcohol Fermentation
The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Organisms that are able to survive with or without oxygen.
Facultative Anaerobes
A metabolic sequence that breaks fatty acids down to two carbon fragments which enter the Krebs cycle as acetyl coA.
Beta Oxidation