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16 Cards in this Set

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What is a mutation
a stable, heritable alteration of the Gentetic code
what are the outcomes of a mutation
either phenotypic change or it can be masked
chemical changes
keto from of nitrogenous bases occur most frequently
what is the significance of 5-bromouracil, hydroylamine, and nitrosogunidin
have a stronge prpensity to change keto->enol form. under normal conditions it binds to A. but in enol from it binds to c.
Ultra Violet Light
stimulates dimerization of adjacent thymines on a DNA structure. 260nm
Errors in replication
1:10^9. Human genome size 3*10^p bases
Missense
When a base change may result in an or encodes a different amino acid.
1)Different A.A
2)Deletion->change in reading frame.
3)Addition->change in ORF
Nonsense
Base change may result in a stop codon in the ORF.The outcome is termination of protein synthesis witha stop codon.
Silent
Base change resulting in no change in the A.A content of the ORF. ->Wobble Hypothesis
Forward mutation
causes a change in the A.A content and possibly new function to a protein.
Reverse mutation
causes a chance in the A.A sequence bringing the sequence back to the original
Conditional Mutation
mutations observed under certain conditions.
Ex: high temo suppression of the effect of a base change
Detection of mutations in bacteria
1st serially dilute
plate on ___ agar
Replica plating can be used to detect ____?
Auxotrophs(requires addition of an A.A or vitatime to the medium)
Bruce Ames did what
made a test that tests the likelihood that a mutagen is also a carcinogen.
what do u need for the ames test?
1)stain of bacteria:tester strain
2)medium lacking Histodine in sufficient quantites
3)Rat Liver enzymes(S9)
4)Chemical to be tested