• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/76

Click to flip

76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Staff
The fundamental latticework of musical notation, upon which symbols are placed.
Ledger Lines
Used to extend the staff to pitches that fall above or below it.
Bar Line
Used to separate measures
Double Bar Line
Used to separate two sections or phrases of music; also used at changes in key signature or major changes in style or tempo.
When bold, it indicates the conclusion of a movement or an entire composition.
Accolade / Brace
Connects two or more lines of music that are played simultaneously
Treble Clef
(also known as the G clef)
Bass Clef
(also known as the F clef)
Whole Note
In 4/4 (“common”) time, this note is equal to four quarter notes.
Half Note
In 4/4 (“common”) time, this note is equal to two quarter notes
Quarter Note
In 4/4 (“common”) time, four of these notes make a full measure
Eighth Note
In 4/4 (“common”) time, two of these notes equal one quarter note
Sixteenth Note
In 4/4 (“common”) time, four of these notes equals one quarter note
Thirty-Second Note
In 4/4 (“common”) time, 8 of these notes equals one quarter note
Whole Rest
Indicates silence in music for the duration equivalent to a whole note
Half Rest
Indicates silence in music for the duration equivalent to a half note
Quarter Rest
Indicates silence in music for the duration equivalent to a quarter note
Eighth Rest
Indicates silence in music for the duration equivalent to an eighth note
Sixteenth Rest
Indicates silence in music for the duration equivalent to a sixteenth note
Thirty-Second Rest
Indicates silence in music for the duration equivalent to a thirty-second note
Beam (Beamed Notes)
Connect eighth notes and notes of shorter value. They reflect the natural rhythmic grouping of notes.
The exact rules vary based on the composer’s preference.
Dot (Dotted Note)

[Note that rests can be dotted in the same manner as notes.]
Placing these to the right of a note lengthens the note’s duration.
It lengthens the note by one-half of the note’s value.
Multi-Measure Rest
Indicates the number of measures in a resting part, used to conserve space and to simplify notation.
Not frequently seen in solo piano music, but common in ensembles or accompanied pieces.
Caesura / Grand Pause / “Railroad Tracks”
Indicates a brief, silent pause, during which time is not counted.
In ensemble playing, time resumes when so indicated by the conductor or leader; used for dramatic effect.
Breath Mark
In a score, this symbol tells the performer to take a breath (or make a slight pause for
non-wind instruments).
This pause usually does not affect the overall tempo.
Double Flat
An “accidental,” this symbol lowers the pitch of a note by two half-steps
Flat Note
An “accidental,” this symbol lowers the pitch of a note by one half-step
Natural
Cancels a previous accidental, or modifies the pitch of a sharp or flat as defined by the prevailing key signature (for example, making an F-sharp into an F-natural in the key of
G Major)
Sharp
An “accidental,” this symbol raises the pitch of a note by one half-step
Double Sharp
An “accidental,” this symbol raises the pitch of a note by two half-steps
Common Time
This is an alternate way to write 4/4 time signature.
Cut Time
This is an alternate way to write 2/2 time signature.
Metronome Mark
Written at the start of a score, and at any significant change of tempo; it defines precisely the tempo of the music by assigning absolute durations to all note values within the score.
Tie
Indicates that the two notes joined together are played as one note.
This can also indicate a note sustained over two or more measures.
Slur

[Note: Slurs and Ties are similar in appearance. A tie is distinguishable because it always joins exactly two immediate adjacent notes of the same pitch, whereas a slur may join any number of notes of varying pitches.]
Indicates that the two notes are to be connected into a phrase as if played in a single breath
Legato
Notes covered by this sign are to be played with no gaps.
Sometimes indistinguishable from a slur.
Glissando (Portamento)

Glissando is the term used in piano, and it reflects that not every tone is played (i.e. – only white or only black keys are played).
Portamento is the term used for instruments such as trombone or the human voice, and it reflects a continuous glide including all tones from one note to the other.
A continuous, unbroken glide from one note to the next that includes the pitches between.
Tuplet

[Tuplets are named according to the number of notes presented, e.g. – duplets, triplets, quadruplets, etc.]
A number of notes of irregular duration are performed within the duration of a given number of notes of regular time.
In normal language, this means you fit three notes into the space of four, seven notes into the space of two, etc.
Chord

[Two-note chords are called diads; three-note chords are called triads.
A chord may contain any number of notes.]
Several notes sounded simultaneously
Arpeggiated Chord
A chord with notes played in rapid succession, usually ascending, each note being sustained as the others are played.
Pianississimo
Dynamic marking meaning “extremely soft.” Very infrequently will you see softer dynamics than this.
Pianissimo
Dymanic marking meaning “very soft.”
Usually the softest indication in a piece of music.
Piano
Dynamic marking meaning “soft.”
Mezzo Piano
Dynamic marking meaning, literally, half as soft as piano
Mezzo Forte

[More commonly used than mezzo piano.
Note: if no dynamic marking appears, mezzo forte is generally assumed to be the prevailing dynamic level.]
Dynamic marking meaning, literally, half as loud as forte.
Forte
Dynamic marking meaning “loud.”
Fortissimo
Dynamic marking meaning “very loud.”
Usually the loudest indication in a piece of music.
Fortississimo
Dynamic marking meaning “extremely loud.”
Very infrequently will you see louder dynamics than this.
Sforzando
Dynamic marking meaning, literally, “forced.”
Denotes an abrupt, fierce accent on a single sound or chord.
Crescendo
A gradual increase in volume
Can be extended under many notes to indicate that the volume steadily increases during the passage.
Decrescendo / Diminuendo
A gradual decrease in volume
Can be extended under many notes to indicate that the volume steadily decreases during the passage.
Staccato
Articulation mark indicating that the note is to be played shorter than notated, usually half the value, the rest of the metric value is then silent.
May appear on notes of any value, thus shortening their actual performed duration without speeding up the music itself.
Staccatissimo
Articulation mark indicating a longer silence after the note than even a staccato, making the note very short.
Usually applied to quarter notes or shorter.
Sometimes used interchangeably with staccato.
Dynamic Accent
Articulation mark indicating the note is played louder or with a harder attack than any surrounding unaccented notes.
May appear on notes of any duration.
Tenuto
This symbol has several meanings.
It usually indicates that it be played for its full value, or slightly longer. It may indicate a separate attack on the note, or may indicate legato, in contrast to the dot of staccato.
Combining this with a staccato dot indicates a slightly detaching ("portato" or "mezzo staccato").
Marcato
The note is played much louder or with a much stronger attack than any surrounding unaccented notes. May appear on notes of any duration.
Fermata (Pause)
An indefinitely-sustained note or chord. Usually appears over all parts at the same metrical location in a piece, to show a halt in tempo. It can be placed above or below the note.
Trill
An "ornament," this symbol indicated a rapid alternation between the specified note and the next higher note (according to key signature) within its duration.
When followed by a wavy horizontal line, this symbol indicates the effect is to be extended. In much music, the this effect begins on the upper auxiliary note.
Mordent
An "ornament," this symbol instructs the performer to rapidly play the principal note, the next higher note (according to key signature) then return to the principal note for the remaining duration. In much music, the effect begins on the auxiliary note, and the alternation between the two notes may be extended.
Inverted Mordent
An "ornament," this symbol instructs the performer to rapidly play the principal note, the semitone below it, then return to the principal note for the remaining duration. In much music, the effect begins on the auxiliary note, and the alternation between the two notes may be extended.
Turn
When placed directly above the note, this symbol indicates a sequence of upper auxiliary note, principal note, lower auxiliary note, and a return to the principal note.
Inverted Turn
When placed directly above the note, this symbol indicates a sequence of lower auxiliary note, principal note, upper auxiliary note, and a return to the principal note.
Appoggiatura
The first half of the principal note's duration has the pitch of the small note.
Acciaccatura (Grace Note)
The small note is of very brief duration, as though brushed on the way to the principal note, which receives virtually all of its notated duration.
Ottava alta
Notes below the dashed line are played one octave higher than notated.
Ottava bassa
Notes below the dashed line are played one octave lower than notated.
Tremolo
A rapidly-repeated note. If the it is between two notes, then they are played in rapid alternation.
The number of slashes through the stem (or number of diagonal bars between two notes) indicates the frequency at which the note is to be repeated (or alternated).
As shown here, the note is to be repeated at a thirty-second note rate.
Repeat Signs
Enclose a passage that is to be played more than once. If there is no left one, the right one sends the performer back to the start of the piece or the nearest double bar.
Simile Marks
Denote that preceding groups of beats or measures are to be repeated
Volta brackets (1st and 2nd endings)
Denote that a repeated passage is to be played in different ways on different playings.
Da capo
Tells the performer to repeat playing of the music from its beginning.
This is followed by "al fine," which means to repeat to the word fine and stop, or "al coda," which means repeat to the coda sign and then jump forward.
Dal segno
Tells the performer to repeat playing of the music starting at the nearest "segno," or sign. This is followed by "al fine," which means to repeat to the word fine and stop, or "al coda," which means repeat to the coda sign and then jump forward.
Segno (Sign)
Mark used with dal segno.
Coda

[Note: Only used after playing through a D.S. al coda or D.C. al coda.]
Indicates a forward jump in the music to its ending passage, marked with the same sign.
Engage Pedal
Tells the pianist to put the sustain pedal down.
Release Pedal
Tells the pianist to let the sustain pedal up.
Variable Pedal Mark
More accurately indicates the precise use of the sustain pedal. The extended lower line tells the pianist to keep the sustain pedal depressed for all notes below which it appears. The inverted "V" shape (/\) indicates the pedal is to be momentarily released, then depressed again.