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77 Cards in this Set

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Less stepwise movement, larger leaps, wider range, and more chromaticism reflect influence of virtuosic solo singing
Early Baroque
Melodic patterns idiomatic to particular musical instruments emerge
Early Baroque
Introduction of melodic sequence
Early Baroque
Stable, diatonic chords played by basso continuo support melody
Early Baroque
Clearly defined chord progressions begin to develop
Early Baroque
Tonality reduced to major and minor keys
Early Baroque
Relaxed, flexible rhythms of the Renaissance transformed into regularly repeating, driving rhythms
Early Baroque
Musical timbre becomes enormously varied as traditional instruments are perfected (eg harpsichord, violin and oboe) and new combinations of voices and instruments are explored
Early Baroque
Symphony orchestra begins to take shape
Early Baroque
Sudden shifts in dynamics (terraced dynamics) reflect dramatic quality of Baroque music
Early Baroque
CHordal, homophonic texture predominates
Early Baroque
Top and bottom lines are the strongest as basso continuo creates a powerful bassto support the melody above
Early Baroque
Arias and instrumental works often make use of basso ostinato procedure
Early Baroque
Ritornello form emerges in the concerto grosso
Early Baroque
Binary form regulates most movements of hte sonata and orchestral suite
Early Baroque
Gabrieli, Monteverdi, Barbara Strozzi, Purcell, Corei, Vivaldi
Early Baroque
Polychoral motet, cantata, opera, sonata, concerto grosso, solo concerto, orchestral suite
Early Baroque
Melody grows longer, more expansive and more asymmetrical
Late Baroque
Idiomatic instrumental style influences vocal melodies
Late Baroque
Functional chord progressions govern harmonic movement - harmony moves purposefully from one chord to the next
Late Baroque
Basso continuo continues to provide strong bass
Late Baroque
Exciting, driving, energized rhythms propel music forward with vigor
Late Baroque
"Walking" bass creates feeling of rhythmic regularity
Late Baroque
Instruments reign supreme
Late Baroque
Instrumental sounds, especially of violin, harpsichord, and organ, set musical tones for the era
Late Baroque
One tone color used throughout a movement or large section of movement
Late Baroque
Homophonic texture remains important, but polyphonic texture reemerges because of growing importance of hte contrapunal fugue
Late Baroque
Binary form in sonatas and orchestral suites
Late Baroque
Da capo aria (ternary) form in arias
Late Baroque
Fugal procedure used in fugue
Late Baroque
Bach, Handel, Telemann, Vivaldi
Late Baroque
Cantata, opera, oratorio, sonata, orchestral suite, concerto grosso, prelude, and fugue
Late Baroque
Short, balance phrases create tuneful melodies
Classical
Melody more influenced by vocal than instrumental style
Classical
Frequent cadences produce light, airy feeling
Classical
The rate at which the chords change (harmonic rhythm)varies dramatically, creating a dynamic flux and flow
Classical
Simple chordal harmonies made more active by "Alberti" bass
Classical
Departs from regular, driving patterns of Baroque era to become more stop-and-go
Classical
Greater rhythmic variety within a single movement
Classical
Orchestra grows larger
Classical
Woodwind section of two flutes, oboes, clarinets and bassoons becomes typical
Classical
Piano replaces harpsichord as principal keyboard instrument
Classical
Mostly homophonic; thin bass and middle range, hence light and transparent
Classical
Passages in contrapuntal stye appear sparingly and mainly for contrast
Classical
A few standard forms regulate: sonata-allegro, theme and variations, rondo, ternary (for minuets and trios), and double exposition (for solo concerto)
Classical
Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, Schubert
Classical
Symphony, sonata, string quartet, solo concerto, opera
Classical
Long, singable lines with powerful climaxes and chromatic inflections for expressiveness
Romantic
Greater use of chromaticism makes the harmony richer and more colorful
Romantic
Sudden shifts to remote chords for expressive purposes
Romantic
MOre dissonance to convey feeling of anxiety and longing
Romantic
Rhythms are flexible, often languid, and therefore meter is sometimes not clearly articulated
Romantic
Tempo can fluctuate greatly (tempo rubato)
Romantic
Tempo can slow to a crawl to allow for "the grand gesture"
Romantic
The orchestra becomes enormous, reaching upward of one hundred performers: trombone, tuba, contrabassoon, piccolo, and English horn added to the ensemble
Romantic
Experiments with new playing techniques for special effects
Romantic
Dynamics vary widely to create different levels of expression
Romantic
Piano becomes larger and more powerful
Romantic
Predominantly homophonic but dense and rich because of larger orchestra
Romantic
Sustaining pedal on the piano also adds to density
Romantic
No new forms created, rather traditional forms (strophic, sonata-allegro, and theme andvariations, for example) used and extended in length
Romantic
Traditional forms also applied to new genres such as Lied, symphonic poem and orchestral Lied
Romantic
Beethoven, Schubert, Berlioz, Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann, Chopin, Liszt, Verdi, Wagner, Bizet, Brahms, Dvorak, Tchaikovsky, Musorgsky, Mahler, Puccini
Romantic
Symphony, program symphony, symphonic poem, concert overture, opera, Lied, orchestral Lied, solo concerto, character piece for piano, ballet music
Romantic
Wide-ranging disjunct lines, often chromatic and dissonant, angularity accentuated by use of octave displacement
Twentieth Century
Highly dissonant; dissonance no longer must move to consonance but may move to another dissonance
Twentieth Century
Sometimes two conflicting, but equal, tonal centers sound simultaneously (polytonality); sometimes there is no audible tonal center(atonality)
Twentieth Century
Vigorous, energetic rhythms
Twentieth Century
Conflicting simultaneous meters (polymeters) and ryhthms (polyrhythms) make for temporal complexity
Twentieth Century
Color becomes an agent of form and beauty in and by itself
Twentieth Century
Composers seek new sounds from traditional, acoustical instruments, from electronic instruments and computers, and from noises in the environment
Twentieth Century
Texture is as varied and individual as the men and women composing music
Twentieth Century
A range of extremes: sonata-allegro, rondo, theme and variationsbenefit from a Neo-clasical revival
Twentieth Century
Twelve-tone procedure allows for an almost mathematical formal control; yet chance music permits random happenings and noises from the environment to shaped a musical work
Twentieth Century
The forms and processes of classical music, jazz and pop music begin to influence one another in exciting new ways
Twentieth Century
Stravinsky, Schoenberg, Berg, Webern, Bartok, Varese, Ives, Cage, Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Copland, Zwilich, Adams, Tavener, Bernstein, Gershwin
Twentieth Century
Symphony, solo concerto, string quartet, opera, ballet music, electronic music, chance music, Broadway musical, film music
Twentieth Century