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89 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
duration of classical era
composers of classical era
haydn, mozart, beethoven, schubert
melody of classical
symmetrical melody in balanced phrases and cadences; tuneful; datonic, with narrow leaps
rhythm of classical
clear rhythmically, with regularly recurring accents; dance rhythms favored
harmony of classical
diatonic harmony favored; tonic-dominant relationships expanded, became basis for large-scale forms
texture of classical era
homophonic textures; horizontal perspective
instrumental genres of classical
symphony, solo concerto, solo sonata, string quartet
vocal genres of classical
opera, mass, solo song
form of classical
ternary form predominant; sonata-allegro form developed; absolute forms preferred
audience of classical era
secular music predominant; aristocratic audience
dynamics of classical era
continuously changing dynamics through crescendo and decrescendo
timbre of classical era
changing tone colors between sections of works
performing forces of classical
string orchestra with woodwinds and some brass; 30-40 member orchestra; rise of piano to prominence
virtuosity of classical era
improvisation largely limited to cadenzas in concertos
expression of classical era
emotional restraint and balance
duration of romantic era
composers of romantic era
beethoven, schubert, fanny medelssohn, hensel, felix mendelossohn, clara schumann, robert schumann, chopin, liszt, berlioz, brahms, tchaikovsky, verdi, wagner
melody of romantic
expansive, singing melodies, wide ranging; more varied, with chromatic inflections
rhythm of romantic
rhythmic diversity and elasticity; tempo rubato
harmony of romantic
increasing chromaticism, expanded concepts of tonality
texture of romantic
homophony, turning to increased polyphony in later years of era
instrumental genres of romantic
same large genres, adding one-movement symphonic poem; solo piano works
vocal genres of romantic
same vocal forms, adding works for solo voice and piano/orchestra
form of romantic
expansion of forms and interest in continuous as well as miniature programmatic forms
audience of romantic
scular music predominant; middle-class audience
dynamics of romantic
widely ranging dynamics for expressive purposes
timbre of romantic
continual change and blend of tone colors; experiments with new instruments and unusual ranges
performing forces of romantic
introduction of new instruments (tuba, englishhorn, valved brass, harp, piccolo); much larger orchestras; piano predominant as solo instrument
virtuosity of romantic
increase virtuosity; composers specified more in scores
expression of romantic
emotions, mood, atmosphere emphasized; interest in the bizarre and macabre
musical style in which rhythms, melodies, or instruments evoke the color and atmosphere of far-off lands
how did exoticism manifest inself in pieces composed in the Romantic Period
-first manifest in northern nations'longing for the warmth and color of the south, and second in the West's interest in the fairy-tale splendors of Asia and the Far East.
what musical career opportunities were available to women as the Romantic Period progressed? What, musically, remained male-dominated
path was now possible throught the broadening of educational opportunities; in public conservatories, women could receive training as singers, instrumentalists, and even composers. Also, the rise of the piano as the favored chamber instrument-both solo and with voice or instruments- provided women of the middle and upper classes with a performance outlet that was socially acceptable. Women's talents received full expression on the stage, where as opera singers they performed major roles.
some also became composers; among them were Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel, known for her Lieder, piano music and chamber works; clara schumann, a talented performer and composer of piano and chamber music; American Amy Cheney Beach, one of the first women composers to be recognized in the field of orchestral music.
also patrons of music.
virtuoso pianists in the 19th Century
Nozart, beethoven, Franz Liszt, Chopin, Clara Schumann
strophic form vs through composed form
two main types of song structure. strophic is when the same melody is repeated with every stanza, or strophe, of the poem- hymns, carols, and most folk and popular songs are strophic. THe form permits no real closeness between words and music, it sets up a general atmosphere that accommodates itself equally well to all the stanzas. The first may tell of a lover's expectancy, the second of his joy at seeing his beloved, the third of her father's harsheness in separtaing them, and the forth of her sad death, all sung to the same tune. Through composed proceeds from beginning to end, without repetitions of whole sections. HEre the music follows the story line, changing according to the text. THis makes it possible for the composer to mirror every shade of meaning in the words.
a german-texted solo vocal song with piano accompaniment. the texts range from tender setiment to dramatic balladry; its favorite themes are love, longing, and the beauty of nature.
folk songs
music that is learned by oral transmission and is easily sung and played by most people; may exist in variant forms
program music
is intrumental music that has literary or pictorial associations; the nature of these associations in indicated by the title of the piece or by an explanator note-the program-supplied by the composer.
absolute musci
pure music, consists of musical patterns that have no literary or pictorial meanings.
concert overture
single-movement concert piece for orchestra, typically from the Romantic period and often baed on a literary program
program symphony
multimovement programmatic orchestral work, typically from the ninteenth century.
symphonic (tone) poem
one movement orchestral form that develops a poetic idea, suggests a scene, or creates a mood, generally associated with the Romantic era. alson tone poem.
one tone poem by Smetana
My Country
two tone poems by Richard Strauss
Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks. `
Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique
best known program symphony. written at age 27 drawing story from his personal life. a young musician of morbid sensibility and ardent imagination, in lovesick despair, has poisoned himself with opium. the drug, too weak to kill, plunges him into a heavy sleep accompanied by strange visions. teh beloved one herself becomes for him a melody, a recurrent theme that haunts him everywhere. ph 288 for all the movements
idee fixe
recurrent theme. symbolizes the beloved; it becomes a muscial thread unifying the five diverse movements, though its appearances are varied in harmony, rhythm, meter, tempo, dynamics, register, and instrumental color.
music nationalism
in associating music with the love of homeland, composers were able to give expression to the hopes and dreams of millions of people. And the political implications of this musical nationalism were not lost on the authorities.
3 examples of nationalistic composers.
Smetana composed music based on Bohemia stirring restlessly under Austrian rule, caught up in a surge of nationalist fervor that culminated in a series of uprisings in 1848.
2. Antonin Dvorak's music drew inspiration not only from songs and dances of his native land but also from America. stood with Smetana
3. Edvard Grieg came to represent the voice of norway. the nationalist movement was especially resonant in Norway, owing to the country's struggle for independence from Sweden.
4. Jean Sibelius. finland tried to free itself from czarist Russia. during the 1890s sibelius produced a series of symphonic poems that captured the spirit of Finnish legends and myths. the most popular of these is Finlandia which occupies the same position in Finland as The Moldau Does in the Czech Republic
grand opera
style of romantic opera developed in Paris, focusing on serious, historical plots with huge choruses, crowd scenes, elaborate dance episodes, ornate costumes, and spectacular scenery.
Bel canto style
"beautiful singing"; elegant Italian vocal style characterized by florid melodic lines delivered by voices of great agility, smoothness, and purity of tone.
operatic "realism", a style popular in Italy in the 1890's which tried to bring naturalism into the lyric theater.
opera flourished primarily in which three countries
france, germany, italy
Jenny Lind
women opera singers were among the most prominent performers of their day, idolized and in demand throughout Europe and the Americas. Jenny Lind was one of the international stars (1820- 1887) known as the "Swedish nightingale" and famous for her roles in operas by Meyerbeer, Donizetti, Weber, and Bellini. A concert artist as well, Lind made her American debut in 1850 in a tour managed with immense hoopla by circus impresario P.T. Barnum.
Four famoous opera composers
1 Giuseppe Verdi, italian
2. Richard Wagner, German
3. Giacomo Puccini, Italian
4. Giacomo Meyerberr, German
Two famous operas by Verdi
Macbeth- most imp.
Aida-commissioned in 1870 by the ruler of Egypt to mark the opening of the Suez Canal.
Two famous operas by Wagner
2-4 The flying dutchman, Tannhauser, Lohengrin
Two famous operas by Puccini
Manon Lescaut
The Girl of the Golden West
what did wagner prefer to call his opera's
his aim was to create a continuous fabric of melody that would never allow the emotions to cool. he therefore evolved an "endless melody" that was molded to the natural inflections of the German language, more melodious that the traditional recitative, more fleible and free that the traditional aria. his operas were known as music drama and were that of a total artwork, in which all the arts, music, poetry, drama and visual spectacle were fused.
concise themes or leading motives, basic themes. recure throughout a work, undergoing variation and development as do the themes and motives of a symphony. carry specific meanings just like fixed idea of Berlioz. they have an uncanny power to suggest in a few notes a person, an emotion, an idea, an object or a landscape.
a kind of courtesan who entertained men in tea houses
a short japanese song traditionally sung by a geisha for private or theatrical entertainment
in what genres did tchaikovsky excel
opera, ballet, orchestral music, concertos,
12 tone music (serialism)
created by Schoenberg as a way to unifying principle that would take the place of the existing tonal system. based on a particular arrangement of the twelve chromatic tones called a tone row. this row is the unifying idea for that composition, and serves as the source of all the musical events that take place in it.
one of schoenberg's goals was to bring spoken word and music as close together as possible; he achieved this aim through Sprechstimme (spoken voice), a new style in which the vocal melody is spoken rather than sung on exact pitches and in stict ryhythm. As schoengerg explained it,"the melody in the speaker's part is not meant to be sung." the result is a weird but strangely effective vocal line.
the german answer to French Impressionism. THe germanic termperament preferred digging down to the depths of the soul. Impulse for the movement came from painting. Also through writing. Expressionism in music triumphed first in central Europe, especially Germany, and reached its full tide in the dramatic works of the Second Viennese School. The musical languge of Expressionism favored a hyperexpressive harmonic language marked by extraordinarily wide leaps in the melody and by the use of instruments in their extremem registers. Expressionist music soon reached the boundaries of what was possible within the major-minor system. Inevitably, it had to push beyond.
one way of rejecting the nineteenth century was to return to the eighteenth. instead of revering Beethoven and Wagner, as the Romantics had done, composers of the 1920s began to emulate the great musicicians of the early eighteenth century-bach, handel, and vivaldi-and the detached, objective style that is often associated with their music. neoclassicism tried to rid music of the story-and-picture meanings favored in the nineteenth century. Neoclassical composers turned away from the symphonic poem and the Romantic attempt to bring music closer to poetry and painting. They preferred absolute to program music, and they focused attention on craftsmanship and balance, a positive affirmation of the classical virtues of objectivity and control.
from the development of polyharmony, a further step followed logically; heightening the contrast of two keys by presenting them simultaneously, which resulted in polytonality. Confronting the ear with two keys at the same time meant a radical departure from the basic principle of traditional harmony; centering on a single key. Polytonal pieces still gave the impression of orderly progress toward a central point, though by permitting one key to assert itself at the end. Polytonality came into prominence with the music of Stravinsky, in such works as the Rite of Spring.
the idea of abandoning tonality altogether is associated with the composer Arnold Schoenberg. He advocated doing away with the tonic by giving the twelve tone of the chromatic scale, in no set order, equal importance-thus creating atonal music. Atonality was much more of an innovation that polytonality, because it entirely rejected the framework of key.
nationality of Aaron Copland
what types of pieces did Copland compose
orchestral music, ballets, Film scores, piano music, chamber music
origins of jazz
African Americans. these musical styles are part and parcel of the great American melting pot, and have captured the imagination of the world. jazz refers to a music created by African Americans around the turn of the twntieth century as they blended elements drawn from African musics with the popular and art traditions of the West. One of the most influential precursors of jazz was ragtime, wich gained popularity in instrumental ensemble arrangments by scott joplin.
from what three areas is jazz created
west africa, europe and americas
one of the most influential precursors of jazz was ragtime which gained popularity in instrumental ensemble arrangements by Scott Joplin. Ragtime was originally an African-American piano style marked by highly syncopated melodies.
a truly American form of folk music based on a simple, repetitive, poetic musical structure. The term refers to a mood as well as a hoarmonic progresion, which is usually 12 or 16 bars in length. Characteristic is the blue note, a slight drop in pitch on the third, fifth, or seventh tone of the scale. A blues text typically consists of three-line stanza of which the first two lines are identical. Its vocal style was derived from the work songs of SOuthern blacks
New Orleans jazz
the music we call jazz was born in New Orleans through the fusion of African-American elements such as ragtime and blues with other traditional styles-spirituals, work songs, and shouts. Depended on the players' multiple improvisation to create a polyphonic texture.
swing (big band)
1930s-1940s. Large jazz ensemble featuring sections of trumpets, trombones, saxophones (and other woodwinds) and rhythm instruments (piano, drums, double bass, and guitar). jazz term coined to describe Louis Armstrong's style.
complex jazz style developed in the 1940s. bebop was created because ppl had gotten bored with big band jazz. bebop was an invented word mimicking the two-note phrase that is the trademark of this style.
hybrid style. combined jazz improvisation with amplified instuments and the rhythmic pulse of rock.
Scott Joplin
ragtime. piano
Louis Armstrong
Swing. vocalist
Billie Holiday
blues. vocalist
"Duke" Ellington
big band. played piano..but was best at orchestrating
Miles Davis
Bebop(cool jazz). trumpet
Charlie Parker
bebop. Alto sax. known for his alteration of short riff-like passages with more flowing lines.
What is the essence of George Gershwin's musical style
among the american musicians who mastered this fusion of the popular jazz styles whose appealing songs, Broadway musicals, and instrumental works are steeped in the new jazz idiom. successfully bridged the gap between clasical and popular music. it is in gershwin's insturemtnal works that he was able to merge the rhythmic vitality and harmonic language of jazz with classical forms. he successfully had taken jazz into the concert hall and into the hearts of classical-music lovers.
David Baker
works span many genres but draw from jaz and blues as well as from classical influences. successfully bridged the gap between classical and popular music. at one point an accident left Baker unable to play the trombone for some years and he took up the cello and in doing so, pioneered the use of hte cello in jazz. widely recognized as a jazz african american educator.
genre of twentieth-century musical theater, especially popular in the United States and Great Britain; characterized by spoken dialogue, dramatic plot interspersed with songs, ensemble numbers, and dancing
Three famous composers of musicals
1 Bernstein- tried to unite jazz with musical theater in the West Side Story
2 Jerry Bock- Fiddler on the Roof
3 Richard Rodgers
what famous conductor was also the composer of the Musicals Cnadide and West Side Story
Leonard Bernstein