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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Acoustical Properties of Sound
Frequency, amplitude, waveform/envelope, duration
Auditory Properties of Sound
Pitch, loudnes, timbre, rhythm
Electrical measure of brain activity derived from electrodes placed on skull
Measures changes in brain activity through magnetic field. Neuroimaging method.
Follows a radioactive tracer injected into the bloodstream. A neuroimaging tactic.
tracking oxygenated hemoglobin via its magnetic spin. Neuroimaging tactic.
why do we study infants?
• Can reveal predispositions for processing-species specific traits
• Can reveal how/what we all learn as we develop
• Can reveal what kind of knowledge needs special training/exposure
• Can reveal “universals”?
How do we study newborns?
• For newborns we use HAS (High-Amplitude Sucking) and length of attention.
How do we study newborns?
• For newborns we use HAS (High-Amplitude Sucking) and length of attention.
How do we study newborns?
• For newborns we use HAS (High-Amplitude Sucking) and length of attention.
How do we study at 5 mo.?
• Over 5 mos. the dominant paradigm is the head turn methodology VRA (Visual
Reinforcement Audiometry)
• habituate to a stimulus and train them to turn toward a display in connection with a
change in the stimulus.
• Measure correct versus false positive = D-prime
What can infants do musically?
Auditory Processing
Musical Grouping
Melodic Perception
Melodic Patterns
Infant Music
What does durational illusion in infants refer to?
Percieving lengthening of silence within a group of tones, but not between groups
True or False. Infants experience stream segregation similar to adults.
Infants are sensitive to phrase boundary cues. True or False.
What can infants detect about music?
• Detect contour changes
• Treat transposition and contour-preserving as identical
Infants can't detect whether a note is within a key or not. True or False
Infants segmentation schemes are examples of what systems of grouping?
Results of tone word study...
– Results in infants similar to adults in distinguishing tone words
– Results identical to linguistic findings using syllables
what are normative skills?
the musical skills that naturally develop in children as they
grow up in a given culture.
what are expert skills?
the musical skills that develop through specialized training
and extensive practice.
Expert is to specialist as Normative is to ________
who was responsible for the symbol system approach of studying musical development?
who studied children's drawings of rhythm?
They proposed the spiral model for musical development.
Stanwick and Tillman
what are the stages of Hargreaves model for musical development? What ages, does he suggest apply?
Sensorimotor 0-2
Figural 2-5
Schematic 5-8
Rule 8-15
Professional 15+
What are the orders of Hargreaves compositional stages?

of cultural



Enactive and
what are bamberger's stages of rhythmic representation?
rhythmic scribbles

early figural/metric drawings

advanced figural representations
Davidson and Scripp's Developmental Typology goes like...
• Pictorial
• Abstract patterning
• Rebus
• Text
• combination/elaboration
Music IN Therapy, examples
ƒÞ Stimulative & Sedative
ƒÞ Management of Pain, Anxiety, Blood Pressure
ƒÞ Neonate - crying and weight gain
ƒÞ Neurologic Music Therapy - helping Parkinson¡¦s patients
Music AS therapy, examples...
ƒÞ Musical activities to modify behavior over time
Three Explanations of music's prevalence in ads...
Classical Conditioning


ELM, what does it stand for?
Elaboration Likelihood Model

ƒÞ Two routes to persuasion
ƒÞ Central - Consideration of relevant information
ƒÞ Effective with high involvement
ƒÞ Motivation and opportunity
ƒÞ Peripheral - association with +/- cues
ƒÞ Effective with low involvement
Who inserted errors that good readers
Focal dystonia:______
loss of motor control
In Drake and Palmer's Expert/Novice performance comparison, which group did not speed up tempo over time?
The youngest group
In Drake and Palmer's study, did skilled performers make more errors in pitch or timing?
In Drake and Palmer's study, as subjects improved relative timing, pitch errors increased. True or False
What are the 4 main ways of studying affective response?
ƒÞ Physiological Responses
ƒÞ Self Report
ƒÞ Philosophical
ƒÞ Experimental Aesthetics
Who does the bipolar adjective scale?
who did the quantitatively average study?
In Repp's 1st group, the average performance was rated what?
2nd best
In experiment 2 of Repp's, which group scored highest and what was surprising?
Expert average scored highest.

surprisingly several student performances were near the top of the list.