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30 Cards in this Set

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Pastoral Symphony
Beethoven's Symphony #6

Each movement has title-->became first form of program music; also had 5 movements
Choral Symphony
Beethoven's Symphony #9

In last movement chorus sings "ode to joy" which fuses worlds of sound and literature
5th Symphony
Motivic Unity (repeating few notes over and over)
Beethoven: 3 Creative Periods
I: The Early Years (Imitation and synthesis)

II: Heroic Period (stormy, dark, dramatic)

III: The Late Years (experimentation, "other-worldly"
Motivic Unity
motive is repeated throughout music from beginning to end
Heiligenstadt Testimony
confessional statement that Beethoven wrote in 1802 after deciding against suicide; part last will, part artistic manifesto

would have ended life, but art held him back; letter to his bro describing what it's like to be deaf
Idee fixe
A "fixed idea"--obsessive musical theme first used in Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique
songs without words
Mendelssohn wrote tons of piano solos and called them this; romantic idea that a piano piece can feel like a song
The "Sublime"
Death was considered a vehicle to the sublime

Chopin--> tuberculosis
Leider
art songs with 1 poem, singers and 1 piano (schubert--erlking); meant for small, private enjoyment
Erlkonig: general meaning of the poem
schubert: tale of evil king of elves and a father traveling through the woods with his sick son--the elf king wants to take the soul of the child; tries to entice him w/stories of games and fun but says he will resort to force if necessary; son gets scared, but father tells him he's just imagining it--son ends up dead
The Trout Quintet
slows down the melody of "the trout" (the trout is a leider about a happy fish until his is caught by a fisherman--word-painting)
Dies Irae
used in Berlioz's Symphonie Fantastique--gregorian chant used in Catholic mass
Story of "Symphonie Fantastique"
Poet falls in love with woman (unrequited)... in despair, tries to commit suicide--ODs on opium and has nightmare that he kills her and is being led to the guilletine; sees her right before he's killed... goes to hell.
Midsummer Night's Dream
Written to evoke the emotions of Shakespere's "A Mid-Summer Night's Dream"
Nocturne
slow, introspective music, usually for piano with rish harmonies and dissonance intending to convey mysteries of the night
Mazurka
fast dance of polish origins
Bel Canto
"beautifully singing" - style of italian opera that features beautiful tone and brilliant technique of the human voice; used by Verdi
Coloratura
rapid, florid, ornamental vocalism (i.e., Verdi - la traviata)
Beethoven
Transitioned b/t 18th and 18th c. style. starts losing hearing at end of 18th, loses it completely at beginning of 19th.

only wrote 9 symphonies, but saw them as "monuments of sound"

almost no melodies/tunes---Motivic Unity
Schubert
Born in Vienna--Beethoven's contemporary

wrote more than 600 leiders, died of syphilis
Berlioz
Born in France, obsessed with outdoing Beethoven.

Symphonie Fantastique
Chopin
Polish; wrote etudes and mazurkas

Contracted TB, very weak... never played in public

piano virtuoso
Liszt
Born in Hungary, extremely rich and famous ("rock star")

Invented solo piano recital
Verdi
Came from musical tradition of "bel cando" and "coloratura"

Mascot of Risorgimiento (Victor Emanuel Re Di Italia)

"La Traviata"
Wagner
Exiled from Germany

Musikdramas: fusion of music and literature

Gesamptkunstwerk: "total art work" - created through-composed operas (no breaks)

creates leitmotif: short motive that leads you through opera--associated with character or theme

wrote own librettos
Brahms
Obsessed with Bach, Mozart, Beethoven

Schumanns loved him

Took motivic unity from Beethoven, counterpoint from Bach, and form from Mozart
Dvorak
Musical nationalist: devoted to homeland

Brahms opened many doors from him

became head of conservatory of music in NYC (Juliard)
Tchaikovski
Didn't strive like others for music to be "Russian"

swan lake, sleeping beauty, nutcracker

homosexual, depressed, died of cholera at 53

most famous work: "1812 overture," which he hated
Mussorgsky
most famous of "kuchka"

killed himself with alcohol poisoning