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59 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Igor Stravinsky
1882 - 1971. Studies with Korsakoff. Style can be summarized by russian (ending with final version of ballet, Les Noces in 1923) to neoclassical (beginning 1917 with the Pulcinella suite), ending with serialism. Trained with St. Petersberg opera in early childhood. Close collaboration with Serge Diaghileff and the Ballet Russes. First major work was his conventional Symphony in E-flat (1905 - 07). Other major works: Firebird, Oedipus Rex, Rite of Spring, etc.
Robert Craft
Stravinksy's personal secretary from 1948 to his death in 71 and one of the major sources of information on Stravinsky's life. Wrote many books, "Conservations with a friend", published 1972.
Charles Gounod
1918-93: France's leading musical figure from mid century to death. Most popular works (Faust; Romeo & Juliet) demonstrate refinement and skill. Rich and varied harmonies, memorable melodies, although can become tedious.
Camille Saint-Saens
1835 - 1921: Composer and performer. Taught at the Ecole Niedermeyer from 1861-1865. Founding member; Societe National de Musique in 1871. Works show formal clarity and idiomatic writing. Concertos (e.g. Violin in B minor), Carnival of the Animals, Sampson & Delilah. Teacher of Faure and RAVEL.
Jules Massenet
1842 - 1912

Won Prix de Rome in 1863, wrote more than 30 operas, incidental music to many plays. Smal works; 200 songs &cycles, motets and part songs.Best known today for excerpts from 1885's Le Cid and 1894's Thais. Influenced by Wagner and was on faculty at Paris Conservatory.
Cesar Franck
1822 - 1890

Belgian by birth; one of France's most important late romantics. Most works for organ solo, chamber music (Piano Quintet 1879), symphonic poems and symphony in d minor linear style results in chromaticism. Cyclic recurrence of themes and their contrapuntal combination. Pupils: Georges Bizet and Debussy.
Vincent D'Indy
1851 - 1931

Student of Cesar Franck. Devoted to Church Music; guiding force behind Schola Cantorum: a conservatory he founded with Borde and Guilmant.
Gabriel Faure
1845 - 1924

An important contemporary of D'Indy. Pursued the training for a church musician at Ecole Niedermeyer. From 1866 - death: one of the leading church musicians in France. Influenced by Saint Saens. Requiem Mass is most famous work. Students include Ravel, Koechlin, Boulanger.
Paul Verlaine
A leading French symbolist poet: Debussy's works use his poems.
Stephen Mallarme
Debussy's 1894 "Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun" was inspired by his poem (this was Debussy's first work to attain fame). Debussy wrote songs with his text.
1862 - 1918

Friends with many symbolist poets.
Maurice Ravel
1875 - 1946

With Debussy, one of the leading figures in impressionism in music. Training began in Paris Conservatory in 1889 - 1895. By this time, he has two masterpieces; Pavane pour une infante defunte and the String Quartet in F major. Because Debussy's music was already well known, many saw Ravel's music as imitation. Wrote many pieces at first for piano solo, and then transcribed for orchestra.
Manuel De Falla
1876 - 1946

First studied piano with his mother; began work in harmony, composition and counterpoint. Lifelong interest in keyboard but switched his focus to comosition from 1901 - 1904. Compositional aspects include dances of Spanish descent such as the Jota. Known for his Zarzuelas (short lyric operas with spoken dialogue); such as La Vida Breve. Other important works Atlantida; the Three Cornered Hat.
Enrique Granados
1867 - 1916

Composer and Pianist, a victim of WWI; hero of Spanish culture; used national themes.
Robert Gerhard
1896 - 1970
One of Spain's leading musicians who fled to Engladn during France's dictatorship.
Joaquin Nin-Culmell
One of Spain's leading musicians who fled to USA during France's dictatorship.
Pablo Casals
1876 * 1973
Spain's leading cellist who fled to Puerto Rico during France's dictatorship. Lifelong advocate for world peace, (re)discovered Bach's Solo Cello Suites.
Felipe Pedrell
Taught DeFalla in Madrid. Skillful compositions, inspired by lyric theatre. Musicologist, wrote eessays on solfege, musical terminology and performance practice of Beethoven piano sonatas.
Jacint Verdaguer
De Falla's "Antlantida" is based on his poem with the same name.
Ernest Halffter
1905 - 89

De Falla's pupil, who was skilled enough and familiar enough with his style to complete Atlantida, which was premiered at La Scala in 1962.
Wanda Landowska
Played harpischord for the Nov. 5 1926 premeire of De Falla's concerto for harpischord. The piece is dedicated to her; but he didn't come to grips with how difficult it was until it's premiere.
Heitor Villa Lobos
1887 - 1959

Brazilian composer / cellist. His work reflects both aspects of this. Pop music "choroes" toured Brazil as concert pianist. Most prolific composer since Telemann. At death had written 12 symphonies and 15 string quartets, surpassing Beethoven. NUMBER.
Silvestre Revueltas
Works reveal a modern man. Academic training took place in the US. Scored many films.
Carlos Chavez
1899 - 1978

Like Revueltas, benefitted from congenial relation with the U.S...Conducted Mexico's National Conservatory of music with Revuelatas, soon became rivals.
Alberto Ginastera
1916 - 1983

Early works used nationalistic Argentinian elements conventionally. Later, he became more experimetnal with classical forms. Began writing operas using Sprechstimme. Works: first piano concerto; Koussevitsky foundation.
Astor Piazzola
1921 - 1992

Student of Ginastera and Boulanger. Born in Argentina and moved to NYC; moved many times thoroughout his life. Played piano for A. Rubenstein while he visited Buenos Aires; who recommended him to study with Ginastera. Wrote wide variety of genres.
Aaron Copland
Worked closely with Chavez, which made him an ideal cultural attache for interamerican affairs during QQII surveyed South American landscape in considerable depth and identified many young composers such as

Hector Tosar; Uruguay
C. Guarnieri: Brazil
J.M. Castro: Argentina
Lincoln Kirstein
Director of the American Ballet Caravan
Jose Henandez
Wrote Martin Fierro, ruminations about the gauchos (?) wayof life. Poetry used in Ginastera's Estancia.
Beatrix Cenci
1971, Ginastera's opera. Shows affinity to early 20th century expressionism.
Mstislav Rostropovich
Oustanding Russian cellist of the 20th century; taught many famous cellists such as Jacqueline DuPre; studies with Pablo Casals. Piazzola wrote "Le grand Tango" for him; which he didn't look at for 8 years. He then made changes to the score in 1990.
Nadia Boulanger
Came from a musical family; went through musical training at the Paris conservatory in 1896. Won compositon prizes; won second prize at Prix de rome for her cantada La Sirene. She was the first woman to direct major orchestras across the US and Europe (e.g. NY Phil, Philadelphia), and used her pieces as a gateway to these positions. Her students were amongst the most famous composers of the 20th century (e.g. Ginastera)
Lil Boulanger
Nadia's younger sister; won the prix de rome. Works include Psalm settings, the cantada "Faust et Helene".
Louis vierne &* Guilmant
taught Boulanger private organ lessons.
Andre Gedalge
Gave Nadia composition lessons; was Faure's assistant.
Chalres Marie Widor
Boulanger frequenly audited his composition classes at the Paris Conservatoire.
Serge Koussevitsky in 1922
Requested Ravel orchestrates "Pictures at an Exhibition".
Walter Damrosch
Founded the US foundation American Friends of Music in France; which gave free concerts during the war.
Alfonso el Sabio
"Alfonso the wise" The choral movement "Praise the Sea" from Atlantaida uses text by him.
Giacomo Puccini
1858 - 1924

After Verdi's death became the cheif liveing composer in Ricordi's publihshing business. Uncannily good at portraying characters musically. Famous works; La Boheme 1896; Madame Butterfly; Tosca.
Ottorino Resphighi
1879 - 1936
Prolific opera composer; but unlike many prominant Italian composers of the time, spent time outside of the genre and made substantial contributions to instrumental genres. Played violin & piano. Works; Re Enzo; Fontane di Roma, Pini di Roma.
Gian Francesco malipiero
1882 * 1973

Remembered for his pioneering ediiotns of the music of Monteverdi; 8 string quartets.
Alfredo Casella
1883 * 1947
Spent much of career in France; studied with Faure. ealry works show influence of faure, Ravel, Mahler, Strauss. Taught and promoted contemporary music in rome. Works; Scarlatinna; Sonataina.
Goffredo Petrassi
1904 - 2003
HUGE influence by Stravinky, hindemith and Casella. Later works abandoed tonality and focused on chamber and orchestral works.
All kenw each other and frequently paired together on concerts.

Georges Auric
Lous Edmond Durey
Arthur Honegger (not french)
Darius Mihaud (most prolific)
Frank Poulenc
and Germaine Tailleferre
Darius Mihaud
1892 * 1974
Most highly trained of Les Six. 15 operas, 18 symphonies, 13 choral works, 18 string quartet, etc. etc. etc.
Arthur Honegger
Odd man out of Les six -- not french. Liked 3 mvmt symphonies.
Francis Poulenc
1899 - 1963
Social connections with Diaghileff, Boulanger, Straveinksy set him in a good position to advance his musical cause. Mentor was Charles Koechlin; fascinated by Bach; wrote lots of sacred music. Sabat mAter: Choral masterpiece.
henri Collet
Music critic; Coined the term, Les Six in Jan. 1920
Erik Satie
The Six's musical and aesthetic role model.
Jean Cocteau
The 6's spokesman.
Ricardo Vines & Charles Koechlin
One of poulenc's teachers and mentors (piano)
1908 1992

Most important member of Le Jeune. Influenced by Dupre and Dukas; uses octatonic scale extensively. Eclectic views of music and sound.
Yves Baudrier
1906 - 1988
Original Member; Le Jeune France
Andrew jolivet
1905 - 1974
student of varese; early piano pieces take inspiration from eastern cult objects.
13th century Indian theorist. His writings discovered by Messiaen. Treatise Sangita ratnakara.
Pierre Boulez b. 1925
Messaien's student 40s-50s conductor; 1971 - 77; conductor of NY Phil. Experimental techniques; electroacoustical music, computer music. Influential teacher. Shifts focus from harmony and counterpoint to rightym.s.s.s.
Mikis Theodorakis b. 1925
Student of Messiaen Greek composer; athens state conservatory. what the fuck who cares
Iannis Xanakis
1922 - 2001
Greek composer; organized demonstrations; stochastic music; non deterministic music; composed with the aid of probability theory governed by statistics of math of large numbers. incorporated 20th century math principles into his music.