Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

172 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the retrograde of a melodic line is that line written backwards
the inversion of a melodic likne is that line written upside down
a progression of pitches that begins on one note and arrives at the note vibrating twice as fast as the first'
differentiated by placement of the 2 half steps in an 8 note western scale
whole tone scale
6 notes, no half steps
used by Debussy and Ravel
when all steps are equal the music sounds free of a tonal center
5 pitches in an octave
used in eastern music
utilised by Hovahness
"home key"
the first note in the scale in which a piece is composed, the first note in the triad
the fifth note in the scale in which a piece is composed
a melody that recurs and is sometimes varied
a fragment of a theme that recurs and is sometimes varied
short fragment of a motif that is repeated exactly
1 tone held or repeated
significance of theme, motif, ostinato, drone
all components of composition used to provide compositional unity - amount of material needed gets less as we try to avoid progressive tonality
absolute music
music that refers to no external reference
Mozart, Schoenberg's 'Variations for Orchestra'
Programmatic music
no text, intrumental music that communicates a piece of literature wil plot narrative through tones.
Strauss's 'Don Quixote', Berlioz's 'Symphonie Fantastique,'
a multimovement work for soloist and accompaniment, the ouside movements are fast and the second movement is slow
"note" a tone that can be sung
a succession of pitches forming a tune
the coincidence of two or more pitches
the number and kind of instruments involved in a piece of music and/or their relationships to one another
unison texture - everyone is doing only melody

not synchrony!
melody supported by an accompaniment of chords (vertical arrangement)
harmonic texture resulting formthe layering of 2 or more melodies
call and response
responsorical texture, call (solo) and response (plurality)
one melody with many repeated transpositions,imitations and variations
call (more than one voice) and repsonse (plurality)
the relative durations of musical sound - longer or shorter
meter (polymeter or mixed meter)
regular groupings of strong and weak pulses, meters are either triple or double

polymeter is the use of two or more metric frameworks simultaneous. its use confuses the listener because you cannot predict wherethe stresses will occur
a particular sound made by a specific instrument, differed by the combination of overtones, dependent on make of instrument
relative loudness of softeness of musical sounds
tempo: allegro, andante, adagio
the relative speed at which a piece of music progresses
allegro - fast
andante - medium
adagio - slow

staccato, legato
themanner in which a musical sound is articulated and released

staccato, articulation in which notes are separated from one another
legato -...connected to one another
the architectural blue print of a piece of music
sonata-allegro form
the proper way of composing first and last movements in the Classical period
1Exposition: home key
I. tonic - A themes, melodies
V. dominant B themes
2. V. Development - fragments of A and B, harmonic travel
3. I. Recapitulation - A themes, B themes in tonic
progressive tonality/functional harmony
one pitch ismost important to a piece, and through use of triads there is movement away from the tonal center and back again. as the 19th c went forward, composers made their peices longer by increasing the breafth of their harmonic spread/span/progression
no particular system governms the pitch progressions of the music
the use of more than one key simultaneously
theory based on natural intervals and mathematically derived from vibratory proportions
Harry Partch
periodic phrasing
a pair of phrases, symmetrical in shap, that tend to take on question and answer form. ex: first sstarts in home key and ends elsewhere (question), then second resolves (answer)
a multivemovement work for orchestra and instrumental soloist, ends with a cadenza, outer movements fast 2nd movement slow
a multimovement work for orchestra, outermovements fast, 2nd slow
Lied, melodie, art song,
a solo song for voice and accompaniment using [german] secular poetry
song cycle
a collection of songs in a vernacular language to high poetry, all with a common theme or subject
for solo singer w/accompaniment
tone poem
a piece for orchestra in one unbroken movement that is an allegory to a story or piece of literature

invented by Liszt
character piece
a piece for solo piano in one freestanding movement that has a title that tried to explain the mood it depicts
a multimovement work for voice, often accompanied by full chorus, that protrays a dramatic plot in concert setting
an evening length multimovement work for orchestra, chorus and vocal soloists playing dramatic roles, often narrated, typically scriptural subject matter, concert setting
evening length multimovement performance piece involving chorus, vocal soloists accompanied by orchestra typically non scriptural subject matter
sung component of operatic composition used to express dialogue or communicate cplot, minimal accompaniment and speechlike rhythm
sung component of operatic composition the dwells on feelings, full orchestral accompaniment
continuous melody
use by Wagner who saw false divisions between recitative and aria
mass for the dead, includes the Dies Irae

Mozart's - the first we heard in class
Verdi's - sensational
Brahm's - spiritual but not religious, comfort the living
Faure - omitted the Dies Irae, comfort the living
Britten - War Requiem
forms of Romantic character pieces

impromptu - spontaneous sounding
nocturn - John Field, Chopin
Polish ethnic folk dance
Chopin used the meter to create a mode of concert piece
incorporation of a breif segment of existing music into another work
Ives quotes Wagner "Lohengrin (wedding march) and Beethoven's 5th
Satie quotes "Jolly Good Fellow"
Dodecaphony/12 tone music/serialism
a form of atonal music based on 12 tone rows - all notes in a row must be played once before any repetition occurs
invented/used by 2nd Viennese school - Schoenberg, Weber
tone row
each note in a scale is assigned a number, the row is the order of 12 pitches that the composer uses as the base for a piece
generated from one original tone row, the set of all the transpositions, inversions and retrogrades of that row
an extended technique "speech voice"

used by Schoenberg in Pierrot Lunaire
Extended Techniques
unconventional ways of using voice, instruments

Stravinsky - quartet - clusters of harmonies
Musique Concrete
the incorporation of recorded real world sounds

Reich - different trains
Hovahness - Different Trains
the use of a small amount of materials to create a full large work of music
Chance operations/indeterminancy
methods of opening composition or performance up to randomness or chance
performance level indeterminancy
performer chooses from a finite set of choices
make up music on the spot in line with meter, chord prgression etc
mozart's candenzas
movement in Europe before/during classical period
humanism and rational thought
form and balance - God as rational, supreme architect
first freedom for writing strictly for the church or the crown
Napoleonic Wars
influence Haydn's "mass in a time of war"
predicated nationalism
concert and publishing business
public concerts emerged as a way of making money during the classical period
Des Knaben Wunderhorn
Little Boy's Magic Horn
predicated German Romantic fascination with supernatural in the forest
Romantic works were often set to his poetry
symbolist poetry
disconnection from thoughts/feelings
movement away from the logic of linear composition

influence impressionism, Debussy, Ravel
Sergei Diaghilev
head of the Ballet Russe
Paris World Expo
1890s, Ravel and Debussy

Gamelan from Bali, Ragtime and Minsrelsy - American vernacular entertainment music
Freud + German Expressionism
exploration of the ugly, the subconscious, fear of internal madness and uncontrolled impulses

Schoenberg Evartung
machine age
ballet mechanique - film
Poulenc's Movements Perpetuelles
Russian Revolution
tied hands of Perkofiev, Shastokovich
Picasso and Cubism
rearranges materials in different ways, Satie
Rene Magritte, surrealism
unconscious dreams, juxtaposition of wildly contrasting styles, Poulenc and Satie
Britten's war requiem - poetry

Ravel concerto for left hand
figure humaine - Ravel

different trains
electronic, recording technology
John Cage; Pauline Oliveros’s “Bye Bye Butterfly;” Karlheinz Stockhouse’s “Stimmung,” “Helikopter Quartett;” Alan Hovhaness’s “And God Created Great Whales;” Steve Reich’s “Different Trains”
Buddhism and the I Ching
John Cage explored Buddhism and used the I Ching – ‘The Book of Changes,’ to compose music based on chance operations, music that indeterminant on the level of performance
Multiculturalism refers to the incorporation of non-Western musical traditions and tools into Western composition. Franz Liszt’s music was influenced by the Gamelon from Bali; Aaron Copland incorporated black American music into his composition; Antonin Dvorak also incorporated black American music into his composition; Lou Harrison again used the Gamelon in “Suite for Violin and Gamelon;” Toby Twining’s music in influenced in part by Tibetan chanting; Ghost Opera
Franz Joseph Haydn
Nationality: German
Style: Classical period; late 18th century
Significant works:
Other: credited with the birth of the form “string quartet”
9,532 symphonies
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Nationality: German
Style: Classical; late 18th century
Significant works: Marriage of Figaro, Piano Concerto, Requiem, Symphony #40
Other: pupil of Haydn
Ludwig Von Beethoven
Nationality: German
Style: Classical; inaugural composer of Romantic period; early 19th c.
Significant works: Fidelio
Other: most creative composer of the end of the Classical period
Carl Maria von Weber
Nationality: German
Style: Romantic
Significant works: Der Freischutz (Samiel) – good against evil in the forest
Robert Schumann
Nationality: German
Style: early Romanticist
Significant works: Concerto
Other: began German interest in supernatural, forest (where disturbing things happen)
Founded and edited journal of music criticism
Active in supporting the birth of new editions of Classical works; foundation of musicology
Franz Schubert
Nationality: German
Style: early Romanticist
Significant works: lied – solo song fro voice and accompaniment using German secular poetry; sonata, string quartets, symphonies, Der Erlkönig (lied; poem by Goethe)
Felix Mendelssohn
Nationality: German
Style: early Romantic (very conservative)
Significant works: Midsummer Night’s Dream – clean, magical things happening in the forest; Elijah Other: Credited with Bach revival
Hector Berlioz
Nationality: French
Style: Romanticist
Significant works: Symphone Fantastique – programmatic Requiem

Quotes Dies Irae
Other: Composed and conducted (1st conductor who turned conducting into show biz)
First important French composer of Romantic period
Idée fixe –
theme that represents someone, something
Fryderyck Chopin
Nationality: Polish-born; Paris
Style: Romantic
Significant works: Nocturnes, Mazurkas
Other: Everything he wrote included piano (sonatas, concertos, etc.)
Johannes Brahms
Nationality: German
Style: Romantic
Significant works: symphonies, pianist, Requiem (in German) – speaks to countrymen of all religions; Selected texts about comfort—began with “blessed are those that mourn”, Hungarian dances (exoticism - idealizing someone else’s culture), Lovesong waltzes (poems from everywhere but Germany)
Other: conservative – while other composers were turning to literary works for music, B wanted to write absolute music
Frank Liszt
Nationality: Hungarian
Style: Romantic
Significant works: Hungarian rhapsody
Other: Credited with inventing piano solo concert
Originator of tone poem/symphonic poem
Giuseppe Verdi
Nationality: Italian
Style: Romantic
Significant works: Requiem (in memoriam of Manzoni); Aida appello arigoleto
Other: Operas: Nationalistic, grand spectacle, realism, about literature (Shakespeare)
Used continuous music in later music
Richard Wagner
Nationality: Germany
Style: Romantic
Significant works: Tristan and Isolde (moment Western music changed forever; pushed tonality to dissolution); The Ring Cycle – Norse creation myth
Other: polyphony- both music and voice were equally important
Results in continuous melody – spinning out an idea; harmonies stretch away from tonic
Involved in every part of his work—designed theatre (Bayreuth); wrote music, words, costumes, scenery, invented own instrument
Gustav Mahler
Nationality: Bohemia
Style: Later Romantic
Significant works: Songs on the Death of Children (poetry: Rucker); symphonies, lieder,
Other: Symphonies were extremely long in attempt to stretch tonality
Edvard Greig
Nationality: Norwegian
Style: Nationalist, Romantic composer
Significant works: Troll Wedding, Piergent - incidental music written for Ibsen
Incidental music - instrumental music written to accompany the drama of a play
Modeste Moussorgsky
Nationality: Russia
Style: Romantic
Significant works: Pictures at an Exhibition (The Great Gate of Kiev – last piece; bells tolling; names of Russian heroes on gate)
Other: Nationalist, homage to heroes
Antonin Dvorak
Nationality: Czech
Significant works: Slavonic dances, New World Symphony
Jean Sibelius
Nationality: Finnish
Significant works: Valse Triste – waltz; incidental
Other: Finland’s first composer
Gabriel Faure
Nationality: French
Style: Incorporated Neo-Classicism
Significant works: Requiem, melodie
Other: “a palette cleanser for excesses of late 19th century”; instead of going through all chromatic variations, just jumped
Put French on compositional map in early 20th c.
Maurice Ravel
Nationality: French
Style: neo-classicism, impressionism, modernism
Significant works: Princess of Pagodas – pentatonic scales; Valley of the Bells; La Walze – apocalyptic;
Concerto for the Left Hand – pianist commissioned it because pianist, Paul witkinstein, because his arm was blown off in WWI
Other: Student of Faure at Conservatoire de Paris
Claude Debussy
Nationality: French
Style: neo-classicism, impressionism, modernism
Significant works: Afternoon of a fawn (set to Mallarme poem);
Erik Satie
France, 1866-1925
Satie wanted to blend high and low art and often wrote satirically. He was anti-serialist and wrote music that was tonal but did not follow rules of progressive tonality. He was a contemporary of Francois Poulenc and was a member, spiritual godfather of “Les six francais.”
Nationality: French
Style: Tonal, Anti-serialist
Significant works: “Dessicated Embryos”
Other:short pieces for piano,
Francis Poulenc
France, 1899-1963
Poulenc worked with French symbolist poetry, producing both compositions informed by impressionism as well as more serious post-Romantic melodies. He incorporated a variety of influences in his work, including dance hall music and Romantic Lieder. He was opposed to German serialism. His works include, “Movements Perpetuelles,” “Concerto for four hands,” and “Figure Humaine.” dropped out of an airplane, Nazi occupation resistance poem, censored

immitated machines

beginnings of minimalism

Nationality: French
Style: Symbolist poetry, opposed to German serialism
Significant works: Perpetual Movements, Concerto for 4 Hands, Figure Humaine
Other: Ostenado – little revolving wheels
Arnold Schoenberg
Nationality: German
Style: serialism; invented 12 tone row; also tonal; German expressionism
Significant works:
Pierrot Lunaire, Erwartung
Other: part of Second Viennese school
Alban Berg
Nationality: German
Style: serialism; taught by Schoenberg; German expressionism
Significant works: Wozzeck
Other: part of Second Viennese school
Anton Webern
Nationality: German
Style: serialism; taught by Schoenberg; German expressionism
Other: part of Second Viennese school; mathematical genius
Paul Hindemith
Nationality: German
Style: retained tonality
Significant works: Series of preludes and fugues; 1 written on each of pitch class in his tone hierarchy
Other: wrote Craft of Musical Composition - theory for explaining need for tonality; hierarchy of pitches based on fundamental pitch; tonal music should move from point of stability, to instability, to stability
Book didn’t explain what he actually composed
Igor Stravinsky
Nationality: Russia
Style: modernism; tonal; Wrote objective music
Significant works: Les Noces (About countryside wedding rituals in Russia), Rite of Spring, Symphony of Psalms, Mass (Russian orthodox cantillation; solo)
Other: Most influential neo-tonal and modernist composer of 20th century
Commissioned to write propaganda for Russia
Dmitri Shostakovich
Style: Neo-Classical
Significant works: String Quartet (dedicated to victims of fascism in Germany; strings symbolize the SS men at night), Babi Yar
Other: Used signature; tones that explaining D. Sch.
Sergei Prokofiev
Nationality: Russian
Significant works: Wrote film scores & ballets: Romeo and Juliet; Peter and the Wolf
Bela Bartok
Nationality: ?
Style: tonal, also serialism, atonal; Neo-Classicist
Significant works: Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta
Other: went to countryside and borrowed melodies; used them as inspiration (melodic, rhythmic features)
Zoltan Kodaly
Nationality: Hungarian
Style: Neo-Classicist
Significant works:
Other: went to countryside and borrowed melodies; used them as inspiration (melodic, rhythmic features)
Ralph Vaughn Williams
Nationality: English
Significant works: Two English folksongs (song cycles)
Other: 1st great English composer of the 20th century
. tried to write identifiably English music; looked to folk music (used their modes)
art songs
Benjamin Britten
Nationality: English
Significant works: War Requiem
Charles Ives
Nationality: America
Style: no one style: Free meter, tone clusters, aleotoricism
Significant works: Circus Band; The Unanswered Question (polytonality)
Other: America’s 1st avante-garde composer
George Gershwin
Nationality: American
Significant works: Rhapsody in Blue
William Grant Still
Nationality: American
Significant works: Symphony 1 (Afro-American Symphony); Wailing Woman (semitic scale; Klezmer; anti- semitism=racism); And They Lynched Him on A Tree
Other: dealing with Black vernacular music onto stage
John Cage
Nationality: American
Significant works: 4’3’’
Other: revolutionized concept of sound
Introduced chance operations in music (Buddhism); relinquishing control
Pauline Oliveros
Nationality: American
Significant works: Bye, Bye Butterfly (feedback; tape looping), Deep Listening Experiences, Sonic Meditations (audienceless)
Other: Interest in manipulating tools of recording studio
Karlheinz Stockhausen
Significant works:
Other: Microphones; created overtones
Lou Harrison
Nationality: American
Significant works: Suite for Violin and American Gamelan
Harry Partch
Nationality: American
Style: microtonality
Significant works: Barstow
Other: Recognized modern system of tuning instruments was artificial; naturally, highest and lowest don’t actually match; toned instruments to actual tunings
Alan Hovhaness
Nationality: American
Significant works: And God Created Great Whales
Other: Music concrete, Eastern pentatonic scales
Terry Riley
Nationality: American
Style: Father of minimalism
Significant works: In C
Steve Reich
Nationality: American
Style: Minimalism; tape looping and phase shifting
Significant works: Different Trains
Beethoven's Symphony No. 1
In C major, we expect the first movment to be based on C major triad, but its a triad + a dissonant tone
Beethoven's fifth
'A' material is just a motif that is inverted and used over and over

fate knocking at the door
Beethoven's Third
Eroica, originally written in celebration of Napoleon, but torn up when he found out the Napoleon had declared himslef emporer
Beethoven's 6th
Pastoral Symphony
The first example of programmatic music
"Awakening of pleasant feelings on arriving in the country" "Scene by the brook" "happy gathering of country folk" "thunderstorm" "Shepherd's song: happy and thankful feelings after the storm"
Beethoven's 9th
The Choral Symphony
longest symphony
the fourth movement in a cantata, introduces the tune that has become known as Ode to Joy
Missa in Tempore Belli
Mass in a Time of War
during Napoleonic Wars
Timpani signals canon - also called Paukenmesse
"Donna Nobis Pacem" grant us peace, have mercy on us
Le Nozzi de Figaro
around 1800, Mozart
prior to Mozart story lines came from Ancent Greece or myth

Figaro is a servant about to marry another servant
Beethoven's opera 1814
'Rescue Opera' Enlightenment Plot
corrupt governement, prisoner, love story
movement into Romantic
Der Erlkonig
Franz Schubert, Lieder
a poem by Goethe
German Romantic imagination, in the forest, the unknown uncontrolled
through composed
Der Freischutz
Webern, 1821
German Opera - Libretto
Supernatural in the forest
flute symbolizes evil, Samiel
Frudenliebe und Leben
Schumann song cycle
A woman's love and life
last movement reiterates the first
Incidental music to a midsummer night's dream
Felix Medelssohn

commissioned to accompany a play
conservative, balanced, structured
Symphonie Fantastique
Romantic work
wanted to create a unified whole rather than a set of parts that can be played separately

programmatic music
makes use of an idee fixe to symbolize the beloved
Ein Deutsches Requiem
written in the German vernaular
chose all his own texts, not the traditional latin prayers, chose passages from old and new testaments but avoided the word Christ

work for orchestra, SATB choir, and two soloists

accessible, comfort the living
Tristan and Isolde
Richard Wagner 1855

continuous melody, use of accidentals, strays from tonic, no cadences
The Tristan Chord - signals coming breakdown of progressive tonality

chaotic arrangement, each event opens up a new but limited set of options, you can trace it back from the end but cant definitely predict from the beginning
New World Symphony
Antonin Dvorak 1893

incorporates black american spirituals
Les Jeux D'eau Dans la Villa d'Este
Liszt character piece

precursor of Ravel and impressionism
Jeux D'eau

Reflets Dans L'eau
around 1910 Ravel's most impressionistic piece for piano, influenced 'Reflets.....' by Debussy uses whole tone scale to write about water,
Prelude a l'apres-midi d'un faune
tone poem, written by Mallarme
symbolist poetry
not the same kind of exact relationship with text as Don Quixote

collaboration with Sergei Diaghilev to create scandalous ballet
Concerto for the Left Hand
Ravel around 1930
commissioned for pianist who lost and arm in WWI

revival of classical form (single movement slow in the middle) influence of jazz and blues stomp chords
The Rite of Spring
Igor Stravinsky
commissioned by Diaghilev before WWI

no identifiable meoldy
only one chord
mixed meter

influenced by:
Russian ethnic pride, minimalism, new tonality: octatonic scale - whole step/half step/whole step/half step
symphony of psalms
Stravinsky's choral symphony

neoclassical, 1930
octatonic scales
Dessicated Embryos
avant garde
Mahler, Romantic song cycle, poetry by Ruckert
Pierrot Lunaire
Schoenberg 1910
unprecedented use of chamber musicians
laceration of Christian imagery
Schoenberg's opera
use of random systems
Alban Berg 1920s
considered the first full length atonal opera
uses lietmotifs as a unifying devices
Babi Yar Symphony
Shostakovich Symphony no 13
choral symphony written in memorial for Russian Jews after WWII
War Requiem
Benjamin Britten
premiered 962
commissioned for rededication for the cathedreal in conventry bombed out
tenor soloist represents voice of British Soldier, baritone is German soldier
incorporates anti-war poetry by Wildred Owen
Afro-American Symphony
William Grant Still
written before Rhapsody in Blue
blues scale, imitations of spirituals
And They Lynched him on a tree
William Grant Still 1940

two communities - white and black - represented - use of different harmonic language for each group

uses old traditions - tri-tone to represent evil, "Stabat Mater" image of Mary at the foot of the cross/tree
Rhapsody in blue
George Gershwin
originally written for piano and jazz band
opens with clarinet bend, bending of notes jazz influence
Concord Sonata
Charles Ives
quotes Beethoven

America's first avant garde composer
bitonality and free meter, tone clusters
Appalachian Spring
Aaron Copland
ballet commission, choreographed by Martha Graham

populist style - tonal, accessible

lesftist - seeking music of a democratic american people
John Cage
Silence Piece
Harry Partch
microtonal music
words from graffitti underpasses
Suite for Violin and Gamelan
Lou Harrison
conventional instruments
violin on one scale
in the momement,no progressivity
influence of eastern philosophy
And God Created Great Whales
Alan Hovhaness
eastern pentatonic scales, conventional instruments, musique concrete
Clapping Music
Steve Reich
phase shifting
Different Trains
Steve Reich
musique concrete
can be performed live with recordings
minimalist in the sense of ostinato - small fragments repeated
Karlheinz Stockhausen
Sonic Meditations Deep Listening Experiences
Pauline Oliveros - 1970s
scores are verbal instructions, music for communities to perform together
in C
Terry Riley
all performers play from same page of patterns in sequence
indeterminancy at the level of performance
marriage between linear and cyclical in regard to time