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65 Cards in this Set

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15th Century Motet
referred now to secular pieces, broader meaning
15th Century Isorhythmic motets
still mantained a conservative form
15th Century
Social Climate
cosmopolitan style
Dukes of Burgandy
Composers of the 15th Century
Dunstable, Dufay, Binchois
What four priciple types of compositions were produced in the Burgundian Period?
Masses, Magnificats, motets, and secular chansons on French texts
Style of Burgundian Music
fauzgourdon, melodic freedeom, lyric lines, same tessituras (shared between pairs), principle melody in discantus
Preferred cadence of Burgundian
Double leading tone cadence
Burgundian Chanson
any polyphonic setting of a French secular poem.
What genre should you think of when you say Binchois
The chanson--especially rondeah
Burgundian Motets
At first no distinct style emerged; both motets and masses were written like the Chanson. A freely melodic treble held sway, supported by a tenor and contratenor in the usual three-voice texture.
English discant
(two-part, contrary-motion counterpoint favouring the imperfect consonances, namely 3rds and 6ths
Faburden
The plainchant was thought of as the mean or middle voice, from which the other two parts were derived, although of course the chant was also present in the treble, which doubled it at the upper 4th while the bottom part sang 5ths or 3rds beneath it. The singers apparently declaimed the words simultaneously in the normal rhythm of plainchant
Gymel
A 15th- and 16th-century English term denoting the counterpoint that results from the temporary splitting of one voice part in a polyphonic composition into two voices of equal range.
Johannes Tinctoris
Liber de arte contrapuncti, 1477
COuncil of Constance
1414-1418
1. ended great schism
2. Big english contigency
3. bishops travelled with their singers
4. English took Ars Nova style back to England
What caused English Music to influence continental music?
1. council of constance
2. Later Continental mannscripts
3. English occupation of France
---John Dunstable was there
4. Council of Basel
Important witnesses of period of English influence
1. Martin le Franc
2. Tinctoris
What was main motivation to unify 5 movements of cyclic mass?
-not intrinsically musical like romantic symphony
-commissions
-political extramusicological purposes
Caput mass
1. early
2. Maundy Thursday
3. Story of Mary crushing devils head under her foot
4. congruent with personal sanctity of the fait- repair philosophy
5.
Who wrote caput mass
Anon, Ockeghem, Obrecht
When does the church militant philosophy begin
1453- Turkish overtake COnstinople and make it a Muslim city
L'homme arme
church militant
jesus as general
enrolling composers
mass defined by melodic lines; cantus firmus echoed in diminution twoards the end of the piece as in isorhythmic motet
Dufay Mass
-4 voice susually
-compositional method
-Cantus firmus always in complete statements (not ars noval iso frags)
Ockeghem
-grealy admired by younger generation
-wrote few works
Compositional method
1. tenor written first
2. Cantus written to be in counterpoint with tenor
3. bassus and aluts written last
Ockeghem compositions
Missa Cuiusvis toni
Missa prolationum-2 voices listed-other two voices derived by the instructions of the canon
3 main categories of cyclic Renaissance mass
(1) the cantus firmus mass, (2) the imitation mass, also known as the parody mass, and (3) the mass on a monophonic tune, distributed through all the voices by means of fuga
5 categories of Josquin des Prez mass
Cantus firmus mass are the best fit
1. cantus firmus mass
2. imitation mass (parody)
3. the mass based on fuga upon a monophonic tune
4. Canonic mass
5. masses on short motives
How is Josquin' parody mass different from the parody masses of Gombert, Willaert, Clement, Morales, Lassus, Palestrina, and Victoria
Te make spaing use of the aggregae polyphony; most of the time they use the voices of the polyphonic model one at a time. WHen the do, those quoted voices have the look of cantus firmi.
Concept of Simultanious Composition of Masses
1. Pietro Aaron- (said josquin composed voices simultaneiously)
Describe successive sompositional technique (when and who)
Ars Nova
1) write out full tenor
2) write out bassus
3) Parts seperated by function
4. Machaut and Dufay
Describe Simultanious composition
1. started with a motive in several voices (immitative polyphony)
2. attention to vertical poperties
3. equal rhythmic density
4. equal motivic interest
5. not distinguished by function
6. points of imitation
Points of immitation
uniform
paired
uniform imitation
section devoted to a single motive
paired imitation
two voices sing point of imitation, next two sing
Josquin's compositional style
1. Uniform imitation
2. paired imitation
3. full homophony
4. homophonic pairs
5. trios of both types
6. various combinations of imitative and free writing
Effect of Josquin's compositional style
create great contrast in texture--generally sounds thinner, lighter, airy
Who are the composers of the psot Josquin generation
1. Willaert
2. Gombert
3. Clemens non Papa
Differences in texture between Post Josquin composers and josquin
pervading imitation-- unvaried in texture vs lots of variation (josquin)
3 Features of Cantus Firmus mass
a) associated with specific CF chant
b) CF is distinctly placed in the tenor voice only
c) Echos of Isorhythm, cf goes through constant diminution
How does isorhythm aspects of Cantus firmus mass differ from isorhythm techniques of ars nova motets
full CF is quoted in true rhythm
4 characteristics of Parody mass
1. based on polyphonic mass
2. opening sections and cadences are imitative of the model
3. cmposition borrows subjects, motives, and harmonies (polyphonic nature)
4. differs from original in texture
Technique of imitation in Fuga upon a monophonic chant
1. technique of imitation ata various pitch levels (like fugue)
What type of mass is Missa Pange Lingua by Josquin?
imitation in Fuga upon a monophonic theme
What kind of mass is Missa Hercules
cantus firmus
What kind of mass is fissa faisant regretz
motivic saturation
Josquin's compositional traits
1. motivic saturation
2. daring repetitiveness
3. developing variation-- small motive changes gradually thoguh each iteration
4. light or partial scoring
5. sullabic setting on same pitch
6. root position homophony
order of polyphonic compositions
organum
clausula
conductus
motet
franconian motet
petronian motet
isorhymic motets
secular works
-ballade
-virelais
-rondeau
cyclic mass
11th composers
theortists
Guido, micrologus
Winchester Troper
Ad organum faciendum
12th C
Leonin
13th
Perotin
14th
De Vitry
Bologna
Machaut
Landini
15th
Power
Dunstable
Ockeghem
Des PRez
Obrecht
16th
Teverner
Gombert
Willaert
Arcadelt
Clemens non Papa
Palestrina
Victoria
Who is the most important composer of French chanson
Machaut
What are the forms of chanson? And the forms are grouped under what title
Formes Fixes
Rondeau
Ballade
Virelai
What is the form of Rondeau
ABaAabAB
What is the form of Ballade
Strophic form
aab(C)
What is the form of Virelai?
Abba Abba AbbaA
True or falso? Virelai is derived from old dance form
true
Did Machaut compose successively or simultaniously
successively
Why would it make sense that Machaut would compose successively in his Chansons
because the main melodic interest lies in the Cantus
Similarities between Machaut Chansons and Isorhythmic motets
1. recurrent rhythmic figures causing segmentation
2. Does not follow 5th Species counterpoint (tinctorus and variation)
What composer cultivated formes fixes
Dufay
But which of the formes fixes did Dufay not write
Virelai