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107 Cards in this Set

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sacred music
music used in the church
Pope Gregory I
(540-604)when music started becoming organized, this guy got the credit- he wanted sacred text to be made into music
plain chant
what we got when sacred music was turned into music - usually sung in Latin
monophonic
only one line of melody
melismas
multiple notes on one syllable i.e. "Gloria"
church modes use major or minors?
major and minors are not used
ionian
modern day major
dorian
start on D - and go to DEFGABCD
phrygian
E to E
Mixolydian
G to G
Aeolian
natural minor A to A
Locrian
B to B
Gianchino Rossino (1792-1868)
known best for his italian operas,
italian operas
are like sitcoms, real people with everyday lives, but with exaggerations
overture
orchestral introduction
bel canto style
beautiful singing
aria
the solo vocal featured within the opera
What song is Gianchino best known for?
the barber of seville, and largo al factotum
Name two of Giuseppie Verdis operas
la traviata, and Aida
Richard Wagner was best known for what?
Gesamtkunstwerk - which means, a complete work
Wagner wrote the ring cycle. also known as?
The ring cycle, which was about 14 hours long. "Das Reingold"
Beyreuth
a theatre where Wagner's operas were performed.
What late romantic composer really geared towards melody?
Piotr Ilyick Tchaikovsky
What songs is Tchiakovsky best known for?
Romeo and Juliet fantasy, Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy, and Symphony #4
What insturments were used in the romantic era?
Woodwinds and pizzacato
What instruments were used during the baroque and classical eras?
strings.
Johannes Brahms best known for what 3 songs?
Hungarian Dance No.5, Symphony #4, Ein Deutches Requiem
Who was Gustav Mahler influenced by? what country was he from
Beethoven and Bach, Australia
He conducted for the NY Philharmonic for a while
Gustav Mahler
What three songs was Gustav Mahler known for?
Das Lied von Erde "Songs of the Earth,Symphony #2 and Symphony #8
What country was Richard Strauss from
He was from German. Hitlers personal composer.
Tone Poems
orchestral piece that tells a story without words
What songs were Richard Strauss best known for?
Sprach Zarasthustra, Ein Heldenleben
Secular Music
music used for entertainment, used poetry which was made to be sung, was made in all different languages
Truobador
south france
Trouveres
North France
Minnesingers
they are secular musicians usually singing about love
Guido D'Arrezo
first musical theorist, first person to realize you need staffs,instructor of plainchant
solmization
syllable to designate note (i.e. do to do or in other words C to C)
Guidonian Hand
each joint in the hand represented a syllable. D'arrezo would point to joint in the hand and they would know what to sing.
Polyphony
two or more melodic lines being sung at the same time. to remove sin
Chorales
German hymns for congregational setting.
Giovanni Pierlulgi Da Palestrina
major composer of the count reformation - he wrote more accessible to the common people.
Madrigals
secular musical settings of poetic stanza the use of text painting
Giovanni Gabrielli
instrumental musician of the time
Antiphonal
multiple intruments
Sonata Plan e Forte
soft and loud are designated and specified what instrument will play what
Organum
chant that has plainchant as bottom voice, which means principle voice.
counterpoint
note against note-writing
leonin and perotin
they were french and wrote organum for the Notre Dame in Paris
Motet
used plainchant called tenor, and had multiple text, 4 different stories
Ars Antiqua
school of organum
Ars Nova
rhythm and meter became more complex, new way of approaching music composition
Gullaume De Machaut
wrote mostly secular music - first to write below tenor
Le Messe De Nostre Dame
Machaut's most famous piece- the longest medieval composition
5 ordinary - roman catholic liturgical songs
kyrie, credo, agnus dei, gloria, sanctus
the proper roman catholic songs
introit, gradual, then allelujah ( would represent seasons, days, etc.)
Imitation
singing came theme not at the same time. (i.e. row, row row your boat)
word painting
music imitates the lyrics (for example talking about something fast - so they sing fast)
Baroque era was like this
more frilly-
Musical Acheievements of the baroque and classical era..(name 3)
organs and harpsichords, bass voice, major and minor, functional harmony, defined meter, terraced dynamics,
the baroque orchestra's size
much smaller, typically a full string section --
Opera
vocal work that is staged with orchestral accompaniement.
Oratorio
an opera that is religious in nature, but not using liturgical text
Opera Seria
Serious opera
aria
a solo vocal feature- in a n operal , mostly female, high voiced
multi-movement
for example, suites
suites
a section of a collection of dances
fugue
one voice - Not human voice-
concerto
instrumental solo,
concerto grosso
instruments solo, with orchestral accompaniement
Claudio Monteverdi
credited for writing one of the first operas
Antonio Vivaldi wrote tongs of what
concertos for everything from flutes, violins, bassons
Johann Sebastian Bach
1685-1705
Georg Friedrich wrote what
oratorios, operas, almost everything
Period of Enlightenment
Classical Era
The classical era orchestra
violins, violas, incuding double bass, horns, all brass. but tubas not yet invented with timpani
Opera Buffa
comic opera
sonatas
a form and also genre of musi where there is an instrumental feature with piano accompaniement
who were the classical era composers in the first viennese school?
Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang amadeus mozart,Ludwig Van Beethoven
Sturm and Drang
more emotion in the music
Rubato
means stealing time
Ludwig Van Beethoven
wrote symphony 9 when he was deaf,
How many symphonies did beethoven write?
9
Franz Schubert and what country
most famous for vocal works -- German
Song Cyle -
a collection of songs with a single threat.
Hector Berlioz
first major composer that didnt play or compose. Wrote symphonie Fantastique (about the man who kills the woman- complete with hell story)
idee fixe
a melody that represents the woman
dies irae
laten for day of wrath - played when someone dies
Claude Debussy
write piano works "reflections on the water"
Dmitri Shostakovich
soviet composer, used alot for USSR propoganda,wrote opera "Lady Macbeth of Ratsenk"
Dmitri wrote what symphony?
no. 7 - "Leningrad"
Bela Bartok
hungarian famous painist.
Aaron Copland
wrote stuff for motion pictures,
Igor Strawinsky
russian born, but spent time in france, his music was so different that a riot broke out
Atonality
no tonal center
The 2nd Viennese School composed of
Arnold Shoenonberg, Anton Von Webern, Alban Berg
Aleatory
chance music, roll of the dice, left up to the performers
John Cage
Sonata I for Prepared Piano
Minimalism
taking on one figure and repeating it. (Steve Reich with 6 marimbas)
improvisation
make up music on the spot, melody on the spot
syncopation
when notes are off the beat
ragtime
popular dance that incorporates alot of syncopation
Scott Joplin
most well known for rag time music
most famous for dixieland and new orleans style
Louis Armstrong
2 pioneers in Big Band Swing
Benny Goodman, and Duke Ellington
2 pioneers in Bebop
John Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker Bird