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150 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
1. Wrote "Thus Spoke Zarathustra"
2. Christianity is a slave religion
3. democracy is the rule of the mediocre masses
4. the only valid life force is the "will to power"
5. Ubermensch- superior individual
Edouard Manet
1. Artist from Paris
2. "Le Dejeuner sur l'Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass)"
-has an air of reality
-indifference displayed
-less interested in telling us what his characters are doing than in showing us how he sees them and their surroundings (this was the beginnings of the move towards Impressionism)
The Impressionists
-took an unconventional approach to art and had contempt for traditional methods.
-they organized an exhibition for their work hoping it would succeed in bringing their work to public attention.
-they concentrated on realism of light and color rather than realism of form and sought to reproduce the literal impression an object made on their eyes (what the artist saw rather than what he knew)
Claude Monet
1. impressionist artist
2. "Impression: Sunrise"
- the painting the Impressionists were named after.
3. "Red Boats at Argenteuil"
4. "Water Lilies"
Pierre Auguste Renoir
1. impressionist artist
2. explored the beauty of the world around him rather than the great problems of human existence
3. "Le Moulin de la Galette"
4. He traveled Europe to see the paintings of other great artists, who influenced his works (Raphael, Velasquez, and Rubens)
5. "Two Girls at the Piano"- shows this influence in a combo of impressionistic approach to color with a more traditional attitude toward form and composition
Edgar Hilaire Germain Degas
1. impressionist artist
2. simply reported what he saw, stressing neither the good nor the bad
3. conveys the universality of human experience
4. "The Rehearsal"- uses one of his themes, ballet, and creates an instant bond between us and the hard-worked dancers
5. "The Tub"- a key-hole vision into an intimate and normal activity
Mary Cassatt
1. impressionistic painter
2. painted spontaneous scenes from daily life, particularly situations involving mothers and children.
3. "Mother and Child"
mothers and children
Berthe Morisot
1. impressionist artist
2. work has often been labeled "feminine"
3. she often painted women and children like Cassatt
4. "View of Paris from the Trocadero"
Auguste Francois Rene Rodin
1. impressionist-ish sculptor
2. "Monument to Balzac"- converted 2D Impressionist effects to a 3D format.
3. His themes are generally massive and dramatic rather than drawn from everyday life (like Impressionist contemporaries)
4. "The Kiss"
5. He always showed some of the medium (bronze, marble, etc) so the viewer knew it was just a sculpture.
Georges Pierre Seurat
1. post-Impressionistic artist
2. paintings based on the geometric relationship of forms in space and are made up of thousands of tiny dots of paint applied according to strict theories of color.
"seurat the picture's out of focus"
Paul Gaugin
1. post-Impressionist artist
2. last paintings were based on his experiences to Tahiti
3. he attacked primitive subjects in a highly sophisticated manner.
4. "Ia Orana Maria"
"if you've ever been to Tahiti, you'll want to Gaugin"
Paul Cezanne
1. greatest post-Impressionist artist
2. tried to impose order on nature
3. conveyed mass and weight rather than an object's literal physical appearance
4. "Still Life with Commode"
5. believed that all forms in nature are based on the cone, sphere, and cylinder.
"ces un fruit et blotche landscape"
Vincent van Gogh
1. post-Impressionist artist
2. tragedy of his life found expressed in his work (autobiographical)
3. His vision of the world was profoundly pessimistic
4. "The Starry Night"
5. "The Night Cafe"
6. "Portrait of Dr. Gachet"
1. new movement in art
2. broke with tradition, expressing their desire to discard all traditional values
Henri Matisse
1. leader of the Fauves
2. expressed a mood of optimism and festivity
3. "The Joy of Life"
4. "The Red Studio"
5. he compels us to look through his eyes and see familiar objects suddenly take on new, vibrant life
matisse > mattress > light and bouncy > happy
1. a group of artists inspired by increasing social and political tensions to produce works that are gloomy, foreboding, and chilling
Edvard Munch
1. Expressionist artist
2. his works express loneliness and torment
3. works reflect the tendency of Norwegian and Scandinavian writers and artists to explore social and psychological problems
"he's got the munchies"
Antonio Gaudi
1. Expressionist architect
2. applied the same artistic principles to his buildings
3. Casa Mila- like "The Scream" uses restless waving lines. there's a sense of disturbance.
German Expressionism
1. concerned with the emotional impact that a work could produce on the viewer.
2. fascinated by the power of color to express mood, ideas, and emotion
3. wanted their art to affect not only the eye but also the viewer's inner sense
4. principle themes were alienation and loneliness.
Erich Heckel
1. German Expressionist artist
2. "Two Men at a Table (To Dostoyevsky)"
Program Music
1. music trying to communicate something beyond purely musical values.
2. Composers attempted to write instrumental music that told a story or described some event.
Ottorino Respighi
1. Programmatic composer
2. "Pines of Rome"- incorporated the sound of a nightingale by including a record player and a recording of live birdsong
Richard Strauss
1. most successful at writing convincing program symphonies and symphonic poems
2. "Don Juan"- presents a man striving to overcome the bonds of human nature, only to be driven by failure and despair to suicide
3. "Till Eulenspiegel"- one of the most successful examples of humor in music
4. "Alpine Symphony"
5. "Domestic Symphony"- autobiographical
6. "Ein Heldenleben (Hero's Life)- autobiographical
Lovis Corinth
1. Expressionist painter
2. "Salome"- gruesome picture
I Corinthians
Gustav Mahler
1. his music was a revelation of his life and emotions
2. his music touches on areas of human experience that were unexplored before his time and increasingly significant to ours.
3. His innovations: deliberate use of popular, banal tunes; and the abrupt changes of mood in his music
4. "Symphony No. 1 in D"
5. "Symphony No. 9"
6. "Das Lied von der Erde (The Song of the Earth)"
Claude Debussy
1. The only really successful Impressionist composer
2. his music evoked the atmosphere of nature rather than literal sounds
3. he had a refined style
4. "La Mer (The Sea)"
5. "Claire de Lune (moonlight)
Maurice Joseph Ravel
1. Only composer to use Debussy's Impressionistic style
2. he was far more concerned with classical form and balance than Debussy
3. "Bolero"
4. "Piano Concerto in G"
5. "Daphnis and Choloe"
Arnold Schonberg
1. Modern composer (generally working in the Expressionist style)
2. "Three Piano Pieces, Op.11"
3. consciously broke all restrictions of past musical traditions
4. invented atonal music because he thought that it was time to abandon tonal music
5. "Pierrot Lunaire"- for which he invented Sprechstimme ("voiced speech")
6. invented the twelve-tone technique
7. "Moses and Aaron"
8. "Violin Concerto"
Igor Fyodorivich Stravinsky
1. Modern composer
2. "The Rite of Spring"
3. "The Firebird"
4. "Petrouchka"
1. "Tristan and Isolde"- Opened with a series of chords not in any key- he used this to express the poetic concept of restless yearning
Fyodor Dostoyevsky
1. author
2. concerned with the effect of social injustices on the individual soul
3. able to combine realism of perception with a deep psychological understanding of the workings of the human heart
4. "Crime and Punishment"- principal theme is the temptation to evil
5. the world he portrays is essentially cruel and one in which simplicity and self-awareness are the only weapons against human evil, and suffering is a necessary price paid for victory
Marcel Proust
1. author
2. "Remembrance of Things Past"- the story's entire concern is to recall the narrator's past life, bringing to mind the people, places, and events that have effected him.
3. stream of consciousness style- reproduces his thought processes as they actually occur rather than as edited by a writer for logical connections and development
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov
1. author
2. used irony and satire to show the passivity and emptiness of his characters.
3. "To Moscow, to Moscow"
4. "The Lady with the Dog"
5. "The Bet"
Henrik Ibsen
1. the most famous playwright of his day
2. he explored "taboo" problems such as venereal disease, incest, and insanity.
3. "A Doll's House"- women's rights
George Bernard Shaw
1. womens' rights author
Kate Chopin
1. women's rights author
2. "The Awakening"- principal theme is the oppressive role women are forced to play in family life.
3. her stories examine the prison that marriage seems so often to represent
William Butler Yeats
1. Modern poet
2. moved by unrest in his country and the rising militarism on the Continent
3. "The Second Coming"- not about Christ
T.S. Eliot
1. modern poet
2. "The Waste Land"
3. used primary characteristics of the modernist temper
4. for culture to survive, one has to recover a sense of cultural continuity through a linkage of the artistic and religious tradition of the past
5. "The Hollow Men"
6. "Ash Wednesday
7. "Four Quartets"
James Joyce
1. modernist poet
2. reflects primary characteristics of the modernist temper
3. only art would give people a new world view that would provide meaning
4. "Dubliners"
5. "Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man"
6. Finnegans Wake"
Franz Kafka
1. modernist writer
2. "The Trial"
3. "The Castle"
4. Kafkaesque experience- one in which a person feels trapped by forces that seem simultaneously ridiculous, threatening, incomprehensible, and dangerous.
5. "The Metamorphosis"
Virginia Woolf
1. modernist feminist writer
2. "Mrs. Dalloway"
3. "To the Lighthouse"
4. "The Waves"
5. "A Room of One's Own"
6. "Three Guineas"
7. Her books were early ammunition in the coming battle for women's rights
Pablo Ruiz Picasso
1. cubist artist
2. "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon"- analytical cubism
3."Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler"- analytical cubism
4. "Three Musicians"- synthetic cubism
Georges Braque
1. cubist artist
2. "Violin and Palette"- analytical cubism
Analytical Cubism
Exploration of geometric qualities of objects seen without reference to linear perspective.
a. flat planes
b. 2D linearity
c. geometric masking of figures
Synthetic Cubism
Same as analytical cubism, except with the addition of color, playfulness, and expressiveness.
Piet Mondrian
1. cubist artist
2. main focus is on line and square highlighted by color
3. "Color Planes in Oval"
Marc Chagall
1. cubist artist
2. "Green Violinist"
3. uses cubist techniques on his dreamy scenes with Jewish influence
"chagally wally...what funny pants you have!"
Rufino Tamayo
1. cubist artist
2. "Women of Tehuantepec"
3. combines subtle Cubist composition with lush colors
Wassily Kandinsky
1. expressionist artist
2. "Concerning the Spiritual in Art"
3. "Several Circles"- nonobjective art
The movement using Freud's theories about the dream world of the unconscious as a basis for a new aesthetics.
Salvador Dali
1. Surrealist artist
2. "Self-Portrait Dedicated to Leon Trotsky"
3. "The Persistence of Memory"
Rene Magritte
1. surrealist artist
2. his work was done with scrupulous attention to realistic detail
3. "Man with a Newspaper"
Paul Klee
1. cubist/expressionist/surrealist artist
2. "Around the Fish"
Let's Klee around the fish, the fish, the fish. Let's Klee around the fish, at 5 'o clock in the morning
Eugene O'Neill
1. American dramatist
2. restated basic Freudian themes of love and hate between children and parents
3. "Desire under the Elms"
4. "Mourning Becomes Electra"
George Gershwin
1. composer
2. transposed jazz into the idiom of symphonic and operatic music
3. "Rhapsody in Blue"
4. "Concerto in F"
5. "Porgy and Bess"
6. Utilized jazz characteristics on a basic theme along with the more classically disciplined form for large orchestral music
Edward Kennedy (Duke) Ellington
1. jazz composer
2. "Take the A Train"
3. "Mood Indigo"
4. attempt to extend the musical idiom of jazz into a larger arena
5. "Black, Brown, and Beige" (symphonic suite)
6. "Shakespearean Suite"
7. "Nutcracker Suite"
8. "Peer Gynt Suite"
9. "The River"
Serge Diaghilev*
1. driving force behind ballet in modernist period
2. founded a dance company called the Ballet Russe
3. produced a one-act dance called "Parade"
(pg. we really need to know this?)
Marcel Duchamp
1. Dada artist
2. innovator who originated two ideas in sculpture: mobiles and ready-mades
3. "L.H.O.O.Q."
Sergei Einstein
1. filmmaker
2. "Strike!"
3. "Ivan the Terrible, Part I and II"
4. "Alexander Nevsky"
5. he was conscious of the class struggle, the needs of the working class, and the inevitable advance of socialism in history
6. "Potemkin"- uses the device of montage (the sharp juxtaposition of shots by film cutting and editing)- we saw a clip in class
baby carriage going down the stairs
Leni Riefenstahl
1. filmmaker
2. "Triumph of the Will"
3. "Olympia"
Olympics and Hitler
Man Ray
1. photographer
2. experimented with darkroom manipulations to produce what he called rayograms
Walker Evans
1. photographer
2. commissioned to record the life of America's rural poor
3. "Let Us Now Praise Famous Men"
Gino Severini
1. Futurist arist
2. "Armored Train in Action"
Sinclair Lewis
1. futurist writer
2. "Babbitt"
Aldous Leonard Huxley
1. futurist writer
2. "Brave New World"
Eric Arthur Blair
1. futurist writer
2. "Animal Farm"
3. "1984"
George Orwell
William Harrison Faulkner
1. modernist novelist
2. his novels reflect the modernist sense of dislocated place and fragmented time
3. "The Sound and the Fury"- depiction of defective children, incestuous relationships, loutish drunkenness and violence
4. beneath the horror of modern life was a strong residue of human hope and goodness
Soren Aabye Kierkegaard
1. father of existentialism
2. emphasized the single individual who exists in a specific set of circumstances at a particular time in history with a specific consciousness
3. "Who am I", "What am I doing here?", "Where am I going?"
Jean-Paul Sartre
1. existentialist writer and philosopher
2. advocate of atheism
3. he said "people are condemned to be free"
4. one of the major voices demanding integrity in the face of the absurdities and horrors of war-torn Europe
Albert Camus
1. existentialist writer
2. "The Stranger"
3. "The Plague"
4. "The Fall"
5. his heroes fought the ultimate absurdity of the world with lucidity and dedication and without illusion
The Camus
Edward Hopper
1. modernist artist
2. his paintings explored his interest in light and his sensitivity to the problems of human isolation and loneliness
3. "Nighthawks"
Hawks Hopper
hopper- the people wish they could hop out of their fishbowl
Ben Shahn
1. modernist artist
2. "Death of a Miner"- tribute to and an outcry against the death of a workingman in a senseless accident
the miner's name is shahn
Georgia O'Keeffe
1. modernist artist
2. "The Poppy"
3. masterful sense of color and scale and a precise sense of line
4. feminist aesthetic
Abstract Expressionism
1. a style of modern art
2. devoid of recognizable content and it used color, line, and shape to express interior states of subjective aesthetic experience.
3. a.k.a. Action painting or New York School
Jackson Pollock
1. abstract expressionist painter
2. his work was characterized by an interest in primitive symbolism
3. Art is in the process, not the result
3. "Number 1"
Adolph Gottlieb
1. abstract expressionist painter
2. painted a series of bursts in which a luminous sun-like color field hung over a primordial exploding mass
3. "Thrust"
A dot and a glob
Robert Motherwell
1. abstract expressionist painter
2. huge primitive black shapes are in the foreground of subtle, broken color fields
3. "Elegy to the Spanish Republic #34"
Mark Rothko
1. abstract expressionist painter
2. experimented with floating color forms of the most subtle variation and hue
3. Rothko Chapel
Helen Frankenthaler
1. abstract expressionist painter
2. stained the canvas
3. emphasized the pure liquidity of paint and the color that derives from it
Elizabeth Murray
1. abstract expressionist painter
2. paints large abstract canvases
3. uses a firmer control over her paint than Frankenthaler
4. "Open Book"
Jasper Johns
1. return-to-representational artist
2. "Flag"
3. focused on objects takenf rom the mundane world
Robert Rauschenberg
1. return-to-representational artist
2. experimented with combine paintings that utilized painting combined with any number of assembled objects in a manner that had deep roots in avant-garde
3. "Monogram"
goat guy
Andy Warhol
1. return-to-representational Pop artist
2. notorious for his paintings of soup cans, soap boxes, cola bottles, etc.
3. also painted celebrities of film and the social world
4. "Mick Jagger"
Ellsworth Kelly
1. minimalist artist
2. "Grey Panels"
Philip Pearlstein
1. photorealist painter
2. cubism and pop combined
3. "Two Female Models on Eames Chair and Stool"
Alfred Leslie
1. photorealist painter
2. "7 A.M. News"- combines an eye for contemporary reality and the use of chiaroscuro (borrowed from Caravaggio)
Romare Bearden
1. contemporary artist
2. produced work that absorbed collage, Cubism, and tendencies to abstraction
3. "The Prevalence of Ritual: Baptism"
4. combines traditional religious ritual with references to Africa done in a Cubist style
Jean Lacy
1. contemporary artist
2. "Little Egypt Condo, New York City"- utilized mixed media and celebrated her racial heritage and rejoiced in the energy of city life
You would only wear Lacy Jeans in New York
Frank Stella
1. abstract contemporary artist
2. "Shoubeegi (Indian Birds)"
Susan Rothenberg
1. contemporary artist
2. work reflected a concern with the texture of painting
3. "Cabin Fever"
David Hockney
1. contemporary artist
2. "Self-Portrait, July 1986"
3. interested in reproducibility by use of color copies (uses a bunch of 8.5x11 paper for art)
Anselm Kiefer
1. contemporary artist
2. "Innenraum"
3. echoes of past masters combined with a brooding sense of Germany's own past
Juane Quick-to-See Smith
1. contemporary artist
2. incorporates images, words, scribbles, and drips to affirm both her own identity and her protest against racism and the mistreatment of Native Americans
3. "Indian, Indio, Indigenous"
Giacomo Manzu
1. contemporary sculptor
2. worked with traditional forms of bronze-casting
3. "the doors of Saint Peter's"
David Smith
1. contemporary sculptor
2. produced simple and elegant metal sculptures that reflected his not-inconsiderable technical skills with metal as well as his refined sense of aesthetic balance
3. "Cubi I"- used stainless steel to produce a geometrically balanced work of solidity that conveys a sense of airy lightness
Alexander Calder
1. contemporary sculptor
2. combined weightlessness of metal with the grace of movement
3. made mobiles
4. "Big Red"
Louise Nevelson
1. contemporary sculptor
2. used pieces of wood to assemble large-scale structures
Joseph Cornell
1. contemporary sculptor
2. influenced by Surrealism and Dada
3. constructed small boxes that he filled with inexpensive trinkets that look like they were collected while traveling
George Segal
1. contemporary sculptor
2. lone white plaster figures in familiar settings
3. "The Diner"
Edward Keinholz
1. contemporary sculptor
2. human forms in familiar setings
3. "State Hospital"- strong, critical indictment of the institutional neglect of the mentally ill
Claes Oldenburg
1. contemporary sculptor
2. monumental outdoor sculptures depicting household items that are too soft, hard, big, or small
3. "Soft Toilet"
Henry Moore
1. contemporary sculptor
2. "Reclining Figure"
2. themes: life (the female figure), death (the bonelike configurations), and sexuality (the holes)
less is moore
Maya Ying Lin
1. Vietnam Vetrans Memorial
Christo and Jeanne-Claude
1. contemporary sculptors
2. used massive amounts of fabric to drape over large natural sites for temporary alteration of our perception of familiar places
Magdalena Abakanowicz
1. contemporary sculptor
2. used basic fibers to make pieces that have fearful references to 20th century human disasters
Duane Hanson
1. contemporary sculptor
2. created hyper-realistic visions of ordinary people in ordinary experiences
Jennifer Bartlett
1. contemporary sculptor
2. "Two Boats"
Mary Frank
1. contemporary sculptor
2. did ceramics using terra-cotta to create large-scale sculptures of women that reflect a haunting beauty and an almost primitive power
Nam June Paik
1. contemporary sculptor
2. "Electronic Superhighway"
Rachel Whiteread
1. contemporary sculptor
2. created large, white, concrete sculptures
Frank Lloyd Wright
1. architect
2. "Form follows function"
3. wanted to create organic architecture--an architecture that grows out of its location rather than being superimposed on it
4. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum
Pier Luigi Nervi
1. engineer and architect
2. creative use of concrete
Eero Saarinen
1. architect
2. Trans World Flight Center- a building can become almost pure sculpture
Jorn Utzon
1. architect
2. Sydney Opera House
Le Corbusier
1. architect
2. saw architecture as a human achievement that should stand in counterpoint to the world of nature
3. Unites d'Habitation
Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers
1. architects
2. Georges Pompidou National Center for Arts and Culture- inside-out building
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
1. architect
2. Seagram Building- sheet of glass sitting on stainless steel pylons
I.M. Pei
1. architect
2. East Wing of the National Gallery of Art
3. rigid geometric design with sharp angles
William Pederson
1. architect
2. ample use of glass with a bowed center that presents contrast-Seattle building
Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown
1. architects
2. The Seattle Art Museum
Frank Gehry
1. architect
2. American Center in Paris- angles and sweeping lines
melting buildings
Richard Meier and Robert Irwin
1. architects
2. Getty Center
Juame Plensa
1. architect
2. Crown Fountain
Plentsy of water
Ingmar Bergman
1. filmmaker
2. "Wild Strawberries"
3. explored the loss of religious faith and the demands of modern despair
Samuel Beckett
1. playwright
2. "Waiting for Godot"- absurdist literature that explores a world beyond logic, decency, and the certainty of language
Elie Wiesel
1. writer
2. "Night"- recounts his own years in the camps
Arthur Miller
1. playwright
2. "Death of a Salesman"- explored the failure of the American Dream
J.D. Salinger
1. filmmaker
2. "The Catcher in the Rye"
Richard Wright
1. author
2. "Native Son"
3. American classic
Ralph Ellison
1. author
2. "Invisible Man"
3. American classic
James Baldwin
1. author
2. "Go Tell It on the Mountain"
Alice Walker
1. author
2. "The Color Purple"
Sylvia Plath
1. poet
2. "The Bell Jar"
Karlheinz Stockhausen
1. composer
2. leading figures in electronic music
3. "Mixtur"
John Cage
1. composer
2. "Concert for Piano and Orchestra"
Steve Reich
1. composer
2. "The Desert Music"
Philip Glass
1. composer
2. "Einstein on the Beach", "Satyagraha" and "Akhnaten"
Benjamin Britten
1. composer
2. "War Requiem"
3. "Symphony No. 13"
Dmitri Shostakovich
1. composer
2. "Symphony No. 15"
3. "Peter Grimes"
4. "A Midsummer Night's Dream"
5. "Death in Venice"
Anton Chekhov (literature)
"The Bet"
-banker, imprisoned lawyer, $2 million, books,
-3rd person with dialogue
-easy to read
Chek "The Bet"
Henrik Ibsen (literature)
"A Doll's House"
-play with characters and purely dialogue (1st person)
-Nora, Torvald (Helmer), dolls, serious, fighting, women's rights
I[bsen]- woman
Kate Chopin (literature)
"The Story of an Hour"
-3rd person with little dialogue
describing Mrs. Mallard and her thoughts
-Mrs. Mallard is sad and pained at her husband's death, but then feels exquisite joy at her newfound freedom. She then dies when she discovers that her husband is alive
Kate-woman-all about a woman and women's rights
T.S. Eliot (literature)
"The Hollow Men"
-poetry with stanzas
-"here we go round the prickly pear.."
Countee Cullen (literature)
-poetry about Africa
-last word, two lines at a time, rhyme
Langston Hughes (literature)
"I, Too, Sing America", "The Negro Speaks of Rivers"
-African American poetry that doesn't rhyme
the Hughe of his skin is black
Helene Johnson (literature)
-African American poetry that sounds like a run-on sentence
-sounds like a black lady gossiping (lots of slang)
Helene Johnson...what a gossiper
James Joyce (literature)
-lots of --'s
-doesn't make sense and their are lots of random names and big words
Franz Kafka (literature)
"The Trial"
*Key Words:K., priest, case, guilty
*3rd person story
K. for Kafka
Jean-Paul Sartre (literature)
"Existentialism as a Humanism"
*an philosophical essay
*key words: exist, Man, existentialism
Elie Wiesel (literature)
-1st person story about Jewish kid at concentration camp
*Key words: camp, block, SS, Jew, God