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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
DYNAMICS
pppp all the way to ffff: Crescendo and decrescendo
HEARING
Human: 18 -20,000 Hz
Above – ULTRA - Bats (up to 100,000 Hz!), whales, porpoises, and dolphins
Below – INFRA below 10 Hz-Elephants, whales, rhinos, volcanoes, avalanches, earthquakes and meteorites (and black holes!)
Black Hole article
57 octaves below middle C
TONE / timbre
sound quality of a voice or instrument
“Found” instruments
things that can be used as instruments although they may not have originally been created for a musical purpose. Examples: sticks, frying pans, bottles, staplers, marbles, boxes, etc.
VOICES: men and women
Women: Sopranos: Alto, Contralto Men: Male soprano (this is a natural voice, but is rare), Countertenor (this is a Male alto or “Falsettist”),Tenor, Baritone, Bass, Basso profundo
INSTRUMENTS
* Strings, Brass, Percussion, Woodwinds, Electronic
* Piano is percussion and Harpsichord is stringed
IDIOPHONE
sounds by the instrument itself vibrating
Ex. Triangle marimba, bells, rattles etc
MEMBRANOPHONE
produces sound by a stretched vibrating membrane (ex. Struck drums)
CHORDOPHONE
produces sound primarily by way of a vibrating string or strings stretched between two points
AIROPHONE (also AEROPHONE)
produces sound primarily by causing a body of air to vibrate.
Ex. Winds, sirens, whips, Trumpet etc
ELECTROPHONE
produces sound primarily by electrical means
Conductor
*baton, keeping the beat, patterns
* They used to keep time audibly with a staff and then a paper roll. Then, a violin bow and finally a baton. The art of beating time - or cheironomy - dates as far back as the Middle Ages. In the 17th century, French conductor Jean-Baptiste Lully (d.1687) was using such a huge staff at the Paris Opera that he lost his grip, dropped it on his foot and subsequently died from gangrene. O U C H!
orchestra
the concertmaster is known as the principal first violinist and coordinates the bowing and leads the section. How many of you have been to a symphony orchestra performance? Most cities have either a professional or amateur orchestra. Many professionals in the top ten such as Atlanta, Cleveland, Boston etc don’t own their instruments completely
DYNAMICS
pppp all the way to ffff: Crescendo and decrescendo
HEARING
Human: 18 -20,000 Hz
Above – ULTRA - Bats (up to 100,000 Hz!), whales, porpoises, and dolphins
Below – INFRA below 10 Hz-Elephants, whales, rhinos, volcanoes, avalanches, earthquakes and meteorites (and black holes!)
Black Hole article
57 octaves below middle C
TONE / timbre
sound quality of a voice or instrument
“Found” instruments
things that can be used as instruments although they may not have originally been created for a musical purpose. Examples: sticks, frying pans, bottles, staplers, marbles, boxes, etc.
VOICES: men and women
Women: Sopranos: Alto, Contralto Men: Male soprano (this is a natural voice, but is rare), Countertenor (this is a Male alto or “Falsettist”),Tenor, Baritone, Bass, Basso profundo
INSTRUMENTS
* Strings, Brass, Percussion, Woodwinds, Electronic
* Piano is percussion and Harpsichord is stringed
IDIOPHONE
sounds by the instrument itself vibrating
Ex. Triangle marimba, bells, rattles etc
MEMBRANOPHONE
produces sound by a stretched vibrating membrane (ex. Struck drums)
CHORDOPHONE
produces sound primarily by way of a vibrating string or strings stretched between two points
AIROPHONE (also AEROPHONE)
produces sound primarily by causing a body of air to vibrate.
Ex. Winds, sirens, whips, Trumpet etc
ELECTROPHONE
produces sound primarily by electrical means
Conductor
*baton, keeping the beat, patterns
* They used to keep time audibly with a staff and then a paper roll. Then, a violin bow and finally a baton. The art of beating time - or cheironomy - dates as far back as the Middle Ages. In the 17th century, French conductor Jean-Baptiste Lully (d.1687) was using such a huge staff at the Paris Opera that he lost his grip, dropped it on his foot and subsequently died from gangrene. O U C H!
orchestra
the concertmaster is known as the principal first violinist and coordinates the bowing and leads the section. How many of you have been to a symphony orchestra performance? Most cities have either a professional or amateur orchestra. Many professionals in the top ten such as Atlanta, Cleveland, Boston etc don’t own their instruments completely
1.Some mostly string Pizzicato
2.Double Stop
3.Vibrato
4.Mute
5.Tremolo
1.plucked
2.2 notes played at once
3.device to soften the dynamic of the instrument
4.mute
5.rapidly repeating notes up & down of pitch
Harmonics
Certain points on a string produce very highly-pitched notes when slightly touched.
By the way, it was Pythagorus (582 – 497) who discovered the mathematics in harmonic relationships. He experimented to discover the relations between different pitches produced by the same string.
The pitch of a note depends on the length of the string, the tension placed on it, and the material. He believed that everything was related in the same way as these harmonius intervals, thus “The harmony of the spheres”
Syncopation
when a weak beat is accented. Creates an element of surprise. Great feature of Jazz is the use of syncopation. Creates problems when your sino-atrial node gets out of whack and your heart experiences arrhythmia. Don’t drink too much caffeine or get too stressed
Tempo
speed of the beat Metronome markings. Watch how your coffee cup changes in the CD-ROM Accelerando and ritardando
Scale
succession of pitches from one note to the very next note with the same name (up the octave)
Ex. From C to C from D# to D# Scales usually have 8 notes and are stepwise.
Rhythm
flow of music through time, particular arrangement of note lengths in a piece of music. It is a greatly
recognizable part of the characteristics of a melody. Comprised of beat, meter, accents and syncopation
Beat
regular recurring pulsation which divides music into units of time. Combinations of different note lengths create rhythm.
* How do we deal with sound?
We create, listen, feel, shut out, interpret, build, reduce, and learn with it.
Sound
deals with vibration of an object through a medium. For us -air. Still occurs though we cannot “hear” it
Music
organized sound in time. Is it really?
consonance
tone combination that is stable and restful
dissonance
tone combination that is unstable and tense
pitch
relative highness or lowness that we hear in sound
interval
distance in pitch between any 2 tones
octave
when tones are seperate by this interval, they sound alike
range
distance between the lowest and highest tones that a voice or an instrument can produce
dynamics
degrees of lousness or softness in music
instrument
any mechanism that produces musical sounds
string
guitar and violin
woodwind
flute and clarinet
brass
trumpet and trombone
percussion
bass drum and cymbals
keyboard
organ and piano
electronic
synthesizer
rhythm
the flow of music through time
beat
regular recurrent pulsation that divides music into equal units of time
meter
organization of beats into regular groups
measure
group containing a fixed number of beats
downbeat
first or stressed beat of the measure
syncopation
when an accented note comes where we would normally not expect it
metronome
a device that ticks for flashes a light at any desired musical speed, and a metronome setting indicates the exact number of beats per minute
time signature
shows the meter of a piece. it appears at the beginning of the staff at the start of a piece and consists of 3 numbers, one on top of the other.
orchestral score
shows the music for each instrument or vocal category in a performing group
theme
starting point for a more extended piece of music and will go through all kind of changes
harmony
the way chords are constructed and how they follow each other
chord
combination of 3 or more tones sounded at once
progression
as a melody unfolds, it gives clues for harmonizing, but it does not always dictate a specific series
tonic chord
the main chord of a piece, the most stable and conclusive and traditionally would being and end a composition
cadense
progression form the dominant to the tonic chord
arpeggio or broken chord
when the individual tones of a chord are sounded one after another
scale
made up of the basic pitches of a piece of music arranged in order from low to high or high to low
key signature
consisting of sharp and flat signs following the clef at the beginning of the staff
modulation
shift from one key to another within the same piece
monophonic texture
a single unaccompanied melodic line- one sound
polyphonic texture
simultaneous performance of 2 or more melodic lines of of relatively equal interest
homophonic texture
one main melody
form
the organization of musical elements in time
contrast
provides variety
variation
provides both unity and variety
style
characteristics way of treating the various musical instruments: melody, rhythm, tone color, dynamics, harmony, texture, and form.