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66 Cards in this Set

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What was different about the Romantic period?
harmony is more richer to enhance melody..more modulations used and progression which were forbidden
What is chromatism? and what period was it used?
Romantic period. It is a term for a style that liberally employs all twelve notes of the chromatic scale.
What happened to the orchestra and why?
there was an expansion of instruments used. this happened to blend tone colors and to add more variety to composition and enriched color
What sections of the orchestra were expanded in instruments in the Romantic period? what else was added?
expanded percussion, woodwinds and brass sections, also added 2 harps
What is program music and what is it written in association to?
it is a term for nonvocal music written in association with a poem, a story, or some other literary source-or even just a highly suggestive word or 2
What differed about the form in the Romantic period?
the form was used much more freely, sonata more free, and more freedom to express individual feelings
What are miniatures? How were they titled and how long did they usually last?
pieces lasting only a few minutes, 5-10 minutes. named after ppl. or songs
What are "grandiose" compositions?
larger and larger symphonies, cantatas and son on with more and more movements, increased performing forces, and longer total time span. 1 1/2 hrs long sometimes
What is the principle of thematic unity?
sometimes use the same thematic material more than once throughout the composition..for ex. repeat theme from 1st movement in last movement
What periods did Beethoven compose in?
Classical and Romantic
Who was Schubert and what did he do? when did he die and when was he born?
Schubert was born in 1797-1828, composed 700 songs, also wrote chamber music, wrote unfinished symphony, piano and cello sonatas
What is the lied?
a particular type of German song that evolved in the late eighteenth century and flourished in the nineteenth. had to be sung and accompanied by piano
Who was the master of the lied?
Franz Schubert
Who is Robert Schumman?
wrote cycles of songs, also was a critic founded magazine that wrote music, discovered Chopin
What were two personalities taken on by a composer? and what composer was this?
Eusebius and Florestan, Schumman
Who is Frederic Chopin?
mostly wrote for piano, born in Poland (half french, polish). elegance & refinement of French music, Romantic sound produced by him
What all did Chopin write?
21 nocturnes, 3 piano sonatas, wrote cell sonatas, ballads, preludes , most famous for writing character pieces for sonata
What are nocturnes? and what composer wrote them?
night piece, written thourghout his career, Chopin
Who is Franz Liszt?
Hungarian one of the greatest composers, he was most popular of concerts, at the end of his life he began to write symphony orchestra music, wrote Hungarian Rhapsody, symphony poems
What did Felix Mendelsohnne write? and who is he?
composed since early age, wrote concert overtures written in sonata forms
What are concert overtures? give an example of one written by Felix Mendelsohnne.
genre resembling an opera overture without any opera,
a Midsummer night's dream
What did Hector Belioz write?
Fantastic symphony, program symphonies
What is the difference between a program symphony and a regular symphony?
has 5 movements
How did Hector Belioz write his music?
had the theme repeating in all the movements and his tone colors gave great effects.
In every big city was it built?
an opera house as a landmark
What influenced Romantic opera? and what is the difference
Baroque and Classical periods, more melodic style
Who are the most famous composers in Italy? and who was the most famous of them all?
Donizetti, Bellini, Rossini, Verdi, Verdi
What is significant in Romantic period to write? and what is it called?
beautiful melody-fel canto
What was Rossini most famous for?
opera-"Lucia Delamermoor" the only arias of opera
Who was Verdi?
popular, started writing operas late, most popular w/Italians, wrote Aida, most famous opera connected with arais
What are the most famous operas?
Il trouverato, Aida, La Traviata, Otello, Rigoletto, and Falstoff
Who was Richard Wagner?
wrote operas, popular, very difficult to stage opera because they were long.
What musical drama did Richard Wagner composer? what was is it based on?
"Total Work of Art" aka "Gesamtkunstwerk", medieval legend
What was Wagner's name for a distinctive type of opera?
musical drama because the operas were so long and hard to listen to
What other story did Wagner compose? what did he use for it?
Tristan and Iso-story, leitmotiv
What is leitmotiv?
a musical motive associated with some person, thing, idea or symbol in the drama.
Who was Chaikorsky?
Russian nationalist composer, incorporated folk melodies into the symphony
What did Chaikorsky write?
6 symphonies, symphonic poems
What are symphonic poems?
a one-movement orchestral composition with a program in a free musical form
What is nationalism?
musical movement, the incorporation of national folk music into concert pieces, songs and operas.
What did Modest Musorgsky write?
Pictures at an Exhibition-a miniature for piano, also wrote opera
Who originally wrote Pictures at an Exhibition?
RAvel
What was the first melody and miniature of Pictures at an Exhibition?
Promenadte-stroll around viewing the gallery
What else did Chaikorsky write?
"Swanlake"
Who was Brahms?
one of the greatest Romantic composers, writing quartets, trios, piano miniatures, symphonies are loved
What did Brahms write?
a violin concerto, wrote 2 cello sonatas, 3 trios
What did Mahler write?
mostly wrote symphonies, sympony is entire world, Funeral Marche
What changed about music in the 20th century?
harmony began supporting melody, and tonality clarified melody and harmony and organized the music
What did they start to use in the 20th century? and what are they?
pentatonic scale-use just 5 notes, 12 tone-using 12 tones in relation to one another.quarter tone
Who invented 12-tone scale?
Schoenberg
What is serialism and when was it being used?
20th century, an ordered sequence of the 12 pitches (series of pitches)
What kind of school was formed in which Schoenberg taught and who were two of his students?
2nd Vietnamese school, Antor Von Weben and Alban Berg
What is the quarter-tone scale?
employs all the pitches of the chromatic scale plus the pitches that come halfway between each pair of them
What is tonality?
is the feeling of centrality, focus, or "homing" toward a particular pitch that we get from simple tunes and much other music end with "c"
What is atonal?
some music reached a point at which no tonal center could be detected at all
What is the Emanicipation of Dissonance?
as melody grew more complex, more fragmentary or more vague, harmony grew more and more dissonant.
Describe Stravinsky's ballads and name 3.
lack of emotions in his music, Firebird, Petrushka, and The Rite of Spring
What are two composers from the impressionistic era?
Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel
Who is Claude Debussy?
blends colors, melodies became less apparent and fragmented, harmonies overshadow melody, smoothness, French music
Who were some famous composers of the 20th century?
Serge Rachmaninov, Giacoma, Puccinni, Tosca
Who is considered the greatest composer of the 20th century?
Igor Stravinsky
Who was Bela Bartok?
hungarian composer pianist and successfully incorporated folk music into his music, used gypsy and Hungarian songs
Who is Dmitri Schostakovich?
wrote 1st symphony at 17 and performed in America, wrote in classical genres connected w/life, compared to Mozart, music is full of pain and suffering b/c of soviet union, romantic and modern
who is Aaron Copeland?
student of natalia Boulanger, formed Composer's Alliance, thought music should sell to ppl. embraced all kinds of styles
Who is John Cage?
used external surroundings for music, 4 min. and 33 sec. of silence
Who is George Crumb?
wrote "Black Angels" wrote sonatas