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69 Cards in this Set

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Organization of musical ideas in time.
Orchestral composition, usualy in four movements, typically lasting between 20 and 45 minutes, exploiting the expanded range of tone color and dynamics of the orchestra.
Sonata-allegro form, and its parts
Form of a single movement, consisting of three main sections: the exposition, where the themes are presented; the development, where themes are treated in new ways; and the recapitulation, where the themes return. A concluding section, the coda, often follows the recapitulation.
Unaccompanied section of virtuoso display for the soloist in a concerto, usually appearing near the end of the first movement and sometimes in the last movement.
String quartet
Composition for two violins, a viola, and a cello; usually consisting of four movements.
Compositional form featuring a main theme (A) which returns several times in alternation with other themes, such as ABACA and ABACABA. This form is often the form of the last movement in classical symphonies, string quartets, and sonatas.
In music after the Baroque period, an instrumental composistion usually in several movements for one or two players.
Short musical composition, purely orchestral, which opens an opera and sets the overall dramatic mood. Orchestral introductions to later acts are called preludes.
Inclusion of folk songs, dances, legends, and other national material in a composition to associate it with the composer's homeland; characteristic of romantic music.
Use of melodies, rhythms, or intrument that suggest foreing lands; common in romantic music.
Mass for the dead.
Fragment of a theme, or short musical idea that is developed within a composition.
Art song
Setting of a poem for solo voice and piano, translating the poem's mood and imagery into music, common in the romantic period.
Vocal form in which the same music is repeated for each stanza of a poem.
Vocal form in which there is new music for each stanza of a poem.
Song cycle
Group of art songs unified by a story line that runs through their poems, or by musical ideas linking the songs, often found in romantic music.
Program music/ absolute music
Instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene, often found in the romantic period.
Quality of sound that distinguishes one instrument or voice from another.
Chromatic harmony
Use of chords containing tones not found in the prevailing major or minor scale but included in the chromatic scale (which has twelve tones); often found in romantic music.
Thematic transformation
Alteration of the character of a theme by means of changes in dynamics, orchestration, or rhythm, when it returns in a later movement or section; often found in romantic music.
Idee fixe
Single melody used in several movements of a long work to represent a recurring idea, used in Berlioz' Symphony Fantastique
Slight holding back or pressing forward of tempo to intensify the expression of the music, often used in romantic music.
Composition in triple meter with a stately character, often for piano solo; originally a Polish court dance.
In French, study; a piece designed to help a performer master specific technical difficulties.
In French, night piece, a composition, usually slow, lyrical, and intimate in character, often for piano solo.
Symphonic poem/ Tone poem
Programmatic composition for orchestra in one movement, which may have a traditional form (such as sonata or rondo) or an original, irregular form.
Concert overture
Independent composition for orchestra in one movement, usually in sonata form, often found in the romantic period.
Incidental music
Music intended to be performed before and during a play, setting the mood for the drama.
Pentatonic scale
Scale made up of five different tones, used in folk music and music of the far east.
Text of an opera.
Song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, usually expressing an emotional state through its outpouring of melody; found in operas, oratorios, and cantatas.
Vocal line in an opera, oratorio, or cantata that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech, often serving to lead into an aria.
Short musical idea associated with a person, object, or thought, characteristic of the operas of Wagner.
Musical style stressing intense, subjective emotion and harsh dissonance, typical of German and Austrian music of the early twentieth century.
Twelve-tone system
Method of composing in which all pitches of a composition are derived from a special ordering of the twelve chromatic tones; developed by Schoenberg in early 1920s
Absence of tonality, or key, characteristic of much 20th-century music.
Musical style that stresses tone color, atmosphere, and fluidity, typical of Debussy (flourished 1890-1920)
Evocation of primitive power through insistent rhythms and percussive sounds.
Approach to pitch organization using two or more keys at one time; often found in twentieth-century music.
Minimalist music
Music characterized by steady pulse, clear tonality, and insistent repetition of short melodic patterns; its dynamic level, texture, and harmony tend to stay consistent for fairly long stretches of time, creating a trancelike or hypnotic effect; developed in the 1960s.
In German, "speech voice;" a style of vocal performance halfway between speaking and singing, typical of Schoenberg and his followers.
Music rooted in improvisation and characterized by syncopated rhythm, a steady beat, and distinctive tone colors and performance techniques. It was developed in the United States predominantly by African American musicians and gained popularity in the early twentieth century.
Term referring to both a style of performance and to a form; an early source of jazz, characterized by flatted, or "blue," notes in the scale; vocal blues consist of 3-line stanzas in the form aa'b.
Jazz style that was developed in the 1920s and flourished between 1935 and 1945, played mainly by "big bands." Also, verb for what jazz peformers do when they combine a steady beat and precision with a lilt, a sense of relaxation, and vitality.
Classical style (dates and 4 characteristics)
The style of music from 1750-1820, characterized by gradual dynamics, tuneful melody, simple harmony, and contrasts of mood and theme.
Romanticism (dates and 6 characteristics)
The style of music from 1820-1900, characterized by individuality of style, nationalism and exoticism, program music, expressive tone color, colorful harmony, and expanded range of dynamics, pitch, and tempo
German art song (ex: Schubert's "Erlkonig")
Parties where only Schubert's music was played.
Gretchen am Spinnrade
"Gretchen at the Spinning Wheel," Schubert's first great art song.
Trout Quintet
A theme and variation movement by Schubert
New Journal of Music
An influential journal founded and edited by Robert Schumann during his twenties. It included his appreciative reviews of young "radical" composers.
"Scenes of Childhood," a song cycle by Robert Schumann.
Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration
A technical study of Western musical instruments, written by Hector Berlioz. The book discusses the various technical aspects of instruments, such as chromatic range, tone quality, and limitations.
An eighteenth-century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason.
Outstanding technical ability at singing or playing a musical instrument, captivated the nineteenth-century public. Liszt and Paganini exemplify this ability.
Character piece
19th century piano music based on a single idea or program. What distinguishes it the specificity of the idea it invokes.
Poet of the piano
A name commonly given to Frederick Chopin.
George Sand
The pen name of Aurore Dudevant, a novelist with whom Chopin had a well-known love affair.
A violin virtuoso of the 1830s, who toured and astonished audiences with his feats.
A college or university school of music, comes from the Italian word for "orphan's home."
The title of one of Beethoven's sonatas, the name suggests its tragically passionate character.
A voice category of opera with a very high range; can execute rapid scales and trills.
Italian for "realism," an artistic trend of being true to life. Common in Puccini's operas.
Music Drama
The revolutionary medium of artistic expression created by Richard Wagner. As opposed to opera, it focuses on the internal aspects of the characters, with emphasis on emotion, not motive. This means that music becomes a complement to the drama, not (as with the Italians) the ends to which drama was the means.
A German term for "complete artwork" attributed to Wagner, which refers to an operatic performance encompassing music, theater, and the visual arts, in which no one element overshadows another.
Ring Cycle
A set of four operas based on Nordic myth, composed and written by Wagner.
The postmodern expression of passion in art, and refers to the re-enactment of romantic themes and motifs. It brings the passion back to earth, finding beauty, sensuality and meaning in the daily human life; and combines the best of tradition with the best of modernity.
"tone-color-melody." A musical technique coined by Arnold Schoenberg that involves breaking up a musical line or melody out from one instrument to between several instruments.
The scholarly study of music and music history.