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64 Cards in this Set

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What is the predominate texture of classical music?and how is it played?
homophony, 1 melody harmonized
Wherewas the first concert hall built and when?
in Oxford, in 1748
What was changed during the classical period and how?
rhythms-more variety
dynamics-flexibility, now written
tone color-more flexibility
Who were the 3 famous composers during the classical period?
Haydn, Beehtoven and Mozart
What type of music became very popular during the classical period?
orchestral music
What was added to the orchestra in the classical period?
brass and percussion instruments
What string instruments are included in a classical orchestra?
1 & 2 violins, violas, cellos, double bass
What woodwind instruments are included in the classical orchestra?
2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, and 2 bassoons
What percussion and brass instruments are included in the classical orchestra?
2 timpani-percussion
brass-2 trumpets, 2 french horns
What are the two major differences about the classical period?
pleasing variety, and more natural->composers want their music to be
What is counterpoint?
forms of polyphony when played along with other lines
What is the word for dynamics growing louder and softer?
growing louder-crescendo
growing softer-dimenuendo
What are melodies like in symphonies during the classical period?
shorter and easier to memorize, usually repeated sereral times during the movement
What are the forms used during the classical period?
sonata form, minuet, rondo, theme and variations
How long did symphonies last during the classical period?
15-20 minutes long, gave it a chance to be more expressive
Describe the movements of a symphony.
1st-allegro or moderator-sonata form (biggest and longest)2nd - lento,adagio,andante-various forms(sonata,variation)3rd-
moderate -minuet, 4th-finale, allegro-rondo and sonata forms
What is minuet?
a moderately paced dance in triple meter
Who was Jean-Jacques Rousseau?
had influence on comic opera which became the most progressive operatic form of the classical century
What was the Enlightenment's greatest artistic legacy to 19th and 20th centuries?
the novel
What is exposition?
a sonata form movement is a large, diverse section of music in which the basic material of the movement is presented (exposed)
What is development?
heightens the tonal-thematic tension set up by contrasting themes and keys of the exposition
What is retransition?
discharging the tension and preparing for the recapitulation to come
What is recapitulation?
step-by-step review
Describe the first part of the sonata form movement. what is it?
exposition-main theme is presented, then 1st theme in tonic key (main key)G minor, then bridge brings 1st & 2nd themes together, 2nd theme-in diff. key (modulation), candence theme
What is the closing theme called?
cadence theme
What is the second part of the sonata form movement?
constrasting theme of the exposition, various themes, music sounds unstable, retransition occurs, then modulation
What is the 3rd part of the sonata form movement?
1st and second theme, bridge, candence theme, remains in tonic key, more stability, then coda
What is coda?
concluding section in any musical form
What years was Haydn born?
1732-1809
When did Mozart live?
1756-1791
What are the four movements of Haydn's symphony # 95?
1st-sonata
2nd-slow movement
-varition form-theme, var.1,2,3
3rd-minuet form
4th-rondo form
Describe the 2nd movement of Hadyn's symphony.
slow movement-a restful episode to contrast with the vigourous first movement
-variation form, theme, var. 1, var.2, var.3
Who did Haydn work for and what did he do when he worked for him?
Esterhazys, composed for the court
What is classical variation form?
entails the successive uninterrupted repitition of a clearly defined melodic unit, then with various changes at each repitition
What is the 3rd movement of Hadyn's symphony # 95?
the sole dance type from the baroque suite to survive in the multimovement genres of the classical period, 1st beat is strongest, reminder of aristocratic courts
Describe the last movement of Hadyn's symphony # 95.
finale movement, rondo form, used mostly for closing movements, repitition of a full fledged time
a relatively simple form with popular leanings
What is the classical concerto?
contest between soloist and the orchestra
What are the three parts of a double exposition?
orchestra exposition, solo exposition, and cadenza
What is double-exposition form?
Mozart developed a special form to capitalize on the contest that is basic to the genre.
Describe the parts of the double-exposition form.
orchestra plays in tonic key the 1st theme and then 2nd theme, candence theme, 1st theme, the bridge, soloist plays 2nd theme and cadence in tonic key, then soloist & orchestra plays
How many movements does a string quartet have?
4 movements
What is chamber music?
a term for music designed to be played in a room in a palace drawing room or in a small hall
What are two types of genres played as chamber music? what instruments are involved?
string quartet-violin 1, violin 2, viola, and cello
piano trio-piano, violin, and cello
What did Mozart write?
piano concerto, double-exposition form
What Beehtoven do at the end of his life?
started to compose Romantic style
What all did Beethoven write?
16 quartets, 32 piano sonatas, and 9 syphonies
When did Beethoven live and what were the years that were important in his life?
(1770-1827)
1770-1800-most classical period
1800-1818-most heroic
1818-1827-most tragic and serene
What movement did Beethoven invent? and describe this movement
scherzo movement-used instead of minuet, third movement, means "joke" same form but faster, lighter, and more humor
What was the first piece Beethoven wrote?
variation
What is opera sena?
serious opera in Baroque period
What is opera buffa? and who wrote it?
italian comic opera, Mozart
What is cadence?
notes orchards ending a section of music with a feeling of conclusiveness, applied to phrases, works and movements
What is the difference in beat compared to classical and baroque to Romantic period?
speeds up and slows down
What is ensemble singing?
action propells faster, can 2 style of singing and more than 1 person singing at the same time about their emotions
What are some examples of ensembel singing? what does this include? and when does this occur in opera?
duets, trios, quartets, w/aria music, in climax of each scenes
What did Beethoven do during the French Revolution?
1789, put ideas of revolution into his music, dedicated symphony to napoleon, pushed the limits of harmony, melody, dynamics and rhythms
What is different about Romaticism?
more emotional, dramatize, personal expression, individualism,
What was the style tempo rubato?
robbed time, slowed down the beat and acceleration
What is different about melody and the orchestra and harmony in the Romantic period?
melody is more heaving, intense, longer phrases, bigger range, orchestra is bigger, more brass, more strings, harmony is more colorful, we have 7 keys in harmony compared to 3-4 keys
Who was the greatest pianist? what nationality was he? what did he write?
Franz Liszt, Hungarian, 1 sonata and mostly short pieces
Who was the most famous Romantic composer? what nationality was her? what did he write?
Chopin, Polish, wrote 3 sonatas
What period followed the Romantic period? and then after this period?
impressionistic period, contemporary music
Who came after Beethoven?, what nationality was he?
schubert, german,
What occured during the Romantic period that was different form all other periods?
composers began to name their works