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29 Cards in this Set

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Common Tempo Indications

Largo
Slow, “broad”
Adagio
Slow, “at ease”
Ritardardo
Get slower
Andante
Moderately slow, “walking tempo”
Moderato
Moderate
Rubato
Pushes and pulls
Allegro
Fast, cheerful, happy, upbeat
Accelerando
Get faster
Presto
Very fast
Vivace
Lively
Molto
Very (allegro molto=very fast)
Non troppo
Not too much (allegro non troppo=not too fast)
Con brio
With spirit
Duple meter
Two beats per measure (yankie doodle)up to right
Triple meter
Three beats per measure [band march in a parade] (my country tis of thee) up, right, left
Pitch
The highness or lowness of a sound depending up on the rate of vibration of the medium producing the sound
Interval
Distance between two tones
Harmony
The meaningful combination of two or more different tones
Timbre
The characteristic quality of the sound of a voice or instrument (color)
Dynamic level
The level of volume (loudness or softness) of a musical sound
Texture
The manner in which melodic lines are used in music-alone, or combined with other melodic lines or with harmony
Monophonic
The musical texture consisting of one melodic line only
Polyphonic
The simultaneous combination of two or more melodic lines (out of writing music)
Homophonic
A melody combined with chords, producing harmony (chordal texture) “somewhere over the rainbow”
Form
The organization or formal design of a musical composition
Syncopation
The occurrence of accents in unexpected places (a strong pulse doesn’t line up with meter) Jazz
Native American Musical Characteristics
- songs weren’t composed, but received in dream or vision
- never independent, but with dance, celebration, games, work, or prayer
- strong powers to accomplish a given end (success in fishing, healing, gambling, or winning a bride)
- oral tradition
- text = vocables = neutral syllables, such as hey, yeh, or neh (consonant-vowel clusters)
- folk music is spontaneously created or source has been forgotten
- no harmony -- call and response = a solo voice alternating with a group
Folk Music Characteristics
- spontaneously created or source has been forgotten passed on by oral tradition
- simple songs, music in informal style
British Traditions

Ballad
- folk story-song, strophic in form (2 or more stanzas in the same melody) = delivered from memory by a solo voice, with or without accompaniment, little detail so listener can use imagination (dramatic and tragic nature, but simple, direct, nearly emotionless manner, time and place remaining pleasantly abstract)