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76 Cards in this Set

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score
The musical notation of a composition, showing all vocal and instrumental parts.
quartet
Any four-part composition written for four performers; also the performers.
coda
A short closing section added at the end of a composition.
form
The structure of a composition; the way its musical materials are organized.
motive
A short musical fragment.
sequence
The repetition of a melody pattern at a higher or lower pitch leve.
orchestra
A balanced group of instruments. The Western symphony orchestra usually consists of strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion.
pentascale
A five-tone in which the notes occur in consecutive letter-name order.
ostinato
A musical idea that repeats throughout a piece or a section of a piece.
scale
An arrangement of pitches from lower to higher according to a specific pattern of intervals. Major, minor, pentatonic, whole-tone, and chromatic are five kinds of scales. Each one has its own arrangement of pitches.
plainsong
Monophonic chant sung usually with even rhythm on Latin text. Plainsong is one of the earliest examples of notated music.
riff
A term used in jazz for a repeated, short, strongly rhythmic phrase.
meausre
A grouping of beats set off by bar lines.
symphony
A large orchestral composition, generally in three or four contrasting movements.
pentatonic
Music based on a five-tone scale. A common pentatonic scale corresponds to tones 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 of the major scale.
transpose
To write or perform music at a pitch other than the original one.
vibrato
A slight, rapid variation of pitch, used to heighten the expressiveness of a tone.
unison
An interval that consists of three whole steps.
triad
A chord of three tones, usually built in thirds-an interval of a third on top of another interval of a third.
downbeat
The first, usually accented, beat of the measure.
polyrhythm
Several different rhythm patterns sounding at the same time, often resulting in conflicts of meter.
trio
Any three-part composition written for three performers; also the performers.
chorus
A large gourp of singers.
finale
The last movement of a composition, such as a symphony or concerto.
Interval
The distance from one tone to another.
program music
Music that is inspired by an extramusical idea, such as a person, place, or story.
monophony
A single unaccompanied melody line.
solo
Music for a single performer, often, with an accompaniment.
duet
Any two-part composition written for two performers; also the performers.
retrograde
A melody, or motive, read backwards.
minor
Tonally, a key that is based on a minor scale-a scale that contains this stpe pattern: whole, half, whole, whole, half, whole, whole.
phrase
A melodic idea that acts as a complete thought, something like a sentence.
minimalism
A twentieth-century sytle of composition that emphasizes extended repetition of a motive or group of motives.
suite
Any instrumental work of several short movements, often programmatic or descriptive.
modulation
A change of the tonal center, or key, within a composition.
homophony
A melodic line supported by a harmonic accompaniment.
staff
A set of five equally slpaced horizontal lines on which musical notes are written.
meter
The way beats of music are grouped, often in sets of two (duple meter)or in sets of three (triple meter).
chromatic
A musical passage in which notes have been altered by use of accidentals.
accent
A single tone or chord louder than those around it (>)
chord
Three or more different tones played or sung together.
accidental
A sign in music notation used to designate a chromatically altered note. The most common accidentals are sharp, flat, and natural
aria
An extended song for solo voice in an opera, an oratorio, or a cantata; often a showpiece for the singer's vocal ability.
Romantic period
That period in the nineteenth century, following the Classic period, when the style of composition was generally marked by lyricism, fantasy, and emotional expression.
bar line
The vertical line on the staff, used to mark off groupings of beats.
cross-rhythm
A rhythm in which the regular pattern of accents is altered to form a new pattern.
Classic period
The period encompassing the latter half of the eighteenth century and the early nineteenth century, when the style of composition was generally marked by simpliciy, balance, and restraint.
concerto
A piece for a solo instrument with orchestra, usually in three movements.
compound meter
A grouping of beats in which three beats are felt as one (such as 6/8, 9/8)
harmony
The sounding of two or more different notes at the same time.
multimeter
Changing from one meter to another in successive measures.
a cappella
A term used to indicate unaccompanied choral singing; "in chapel style."
dynamics
Degrees of loudness and softness.
ballad
A popular song that usually tells a story.
graphic notation
Notation that uses pictures to represent sounds (rather than traditional notation for exact pitches.)
folk song
A song of unknown suthorship that has for generations been current among the people of a nation or region.
ensemble
A gourp of players or singers.
fugue
A musical form based on imitation, in which tha main melody (subject) and related melodies (countersubjects) are varied in different ways. The texture is polyphonic.
countermelody
A melody that is played or sung at the same time as the main melody.
grand staff
A two-staff system with the soprano and alto parts shown in the treble clef and the tenor and baritone parts shown in the bass clef.
round
A form in which a melody begins in one part and then is continually and exactly repeated by other parts in an overlapping fasion.
dissonance
An interval or a chord that sounds unstable and pulls toward a consonance.
octave
The distance of eight steps from one tone to another that has the same letter name.
improvisation
The art of making up the music as the performer goes along.
key
The particular scale on which a piece of music or a section of it is based, named for its tonic or key-tone or "home-base" tone.
rhythm
The combination of sounds and silences in the same or differing lengths.
oratorio
A musical drama for voices and orchestra, often based on a religious narrative; usually performed without scenery or action.
jazz
A style that grew out of the music of african Americans, then took many different substyles, such as ragtime, blues, cool jazz, swing, bebop, rock.
beat
A repeating pulse that can be felt in some music.
tempo
The speed of the beat.
pitch
the highness or lowness of a tone.
opera
A theatrical production combining drama, vocal and orchestral music, costumes, scenery, and sometimes dance.
melody
A succession of single tones with rhythm, forming a recognizable musical ideas.
major
Tonally, a key that is based on a major scale-a scale that contains this step pattern; whole, whole, half, whole, whole, whole, half.
key signature
An indication of key consisting of sharps or flats placed on the staff at the beginning of a composition.
theme
An important melody that occurs several times in a piece of music.