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77 Cards in this Set

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1. basso continuo
a vocal line supported by the continuo called monody, and two instrumental parts over the continuo.
2. figured bass
- the continuo notation, has number directions
3. monody
solo singing w/ accompaniment of basso continuo refered to as recitative
4. trio-sonata texture
two instrumental parts of the continuo, hay 3 parts playing, (2 violions, 1 cello, harpsichord)
5. Doctrine of Affections
a way to codify musical observation into doctrines, raises status of music Composers generally established a particular affect (ex. Sorrow, joy) at the beginning of a movement and adhered to it for the remainder of the movement.
Who was the “Sun King”?
Louis XIV
7. Florentine Camerata
group that was convinced greek dramas were sung, and created recitative so people could understand the words while singing.
8. Claudio Monteverdi
wrote first lasting opera “La favola d’Orfeo” in 1607. Hay various types of monody for differing dramatic effects in the work.
9. Ritornello
the return,” the music that repeats from time to time in the opera
10. Arcangelo Corelli-
late-Baroque master who wrote chamber sonatas
11. Sonata
sounded”, “played”: instrumental
a. Church sonata
performed during the “action” parts of the service (post-communion, etc). 4-part movement (slow-fast-slow-fast)
b. Chamber sonata
written dances for the musical pleasure and education of patrons. Composed of indiv dances of div character all in the same key
12. Concerto
played in ensembles, esp sacred once blending voices and instruments.
a. Concerto grosso
large ensemble playing together
b. Tutti/ripieno/concerto
the larger group of musicians
c. Solo/principale/concertino:
the smaller group/ singular persoon playing a harder part
13. Antonia Vivaldi
wrote hundreds of concertos, w/ modulating ritornello.
a. 3-movement concerto
b. Modulating ritornello
the recurring instrumental statement, but in a different key each time
14. Johann Sebastian Bach
wrote everything but operas, worked as church organist, wrote suites, French overture, GERMAN
15. Thomasschule at Leipzig
Bach was the cantor there (final post), wrote many cantatas there
16. Chorale
- a hymn, especially one with a strong harmonization (called a bach chorale)
18. Overture in D Major
- by bach, an orchestral suite in aabb form, slow tempo, dotted rhythms, then lively fugal part follows.
a. French Overture- slow-fast beginning section of a suite
b. Air- written for strings alone in binary dance form.
c. Dance suite- Bach combines two gavottes and a bourrée for a lively dance
19. Cantata
hay both secular and sacred. Bach wrote 200+
a. Secular cantata
written for events, ie bdays, weddings. Feautred memorable tunes but not many choruses nor chorales
b. Sacred cantata
6 or 7 movements with chorus (sometimes based on a chorale), and ending w/ a harmonized chorale. Hay arias and recitatives. Themes based on day in church year
c. Gott der Herr, ist Sonn’ und Schild-
- written for reformation festival. Six movements- rousing chorus, aria, choral movement, recitative, recitative, aria, chorale, Polyphonic, with setup like statement, dev, and summation. Aab Bar form. by bach
20. Handel
wrote everything + operas. Great organist, wrote the messiah, composer of English oration, musical prodigy
a. Organ concerto in F Major
theme performed by unison of all instruments, w/ solo organ breaking in. Goes from F Major to Bb major. by handel
b. Italian opera
3 acts, with librettos stressing noble and compassionate characters from roma history/mythology. Dramatic action carried in recitatives. (handel)
c. English Oratorio
a large work in English w/ important choral movements typically based on Old Testament subject. Ex, messiah, Samson, isreal in Egypt (handel)
d. Word painting
in vocal music, words illustrated by what music does (handel)
e. Aria/recitative
strict/free pairing. Aria=singing part, recitative=speaking part
india Ensemble size
3 or fewer
2. Raga
melody, played on sitar
3. Tala
rhythm, played on tabla
4. drone
played on tambura
5. india audience participation
expected to clap the rhythms, and musicians try to mess them up
6. comparison to baroque music vs india
free/strict pairing (alap/gap vs aria/recitative), improvisation necessary
7. Ali Akbar Khan
most revered Hindustani instrumentalists
8. Tala (rhythmic st)
Indian rhythmic organization. Has a patterned rhythmic cycle of a fixed number of beats
9. Tihai
a cadential devision in a three-fold figure. It’s a short rhythmic motive states three times, ending exactly on the sam
1. Pre-classical styles
rococo (reduces Baroque grandeur and elaboration to a style that is graceful but a tad shallow) and gallant (sentimental and expressive- empfindsamer)
a. Empfindasamer
sentimental melodies
b. Sturm und drang
orchestrial music w/ multiple emotions used
2. Haydn
“father of the symphony”, used Turkish rhythms, created string quartet b. Composed 104 symphonies
d. Symphony No. 100 in G M, “Military
known for Turkish instruments (haydn)
4. Mozart
child prodigy, uses antecedent/consequent phrases in his music; known for beautiful melodies and preference for contrasting themes
a. Sonata form
- two harmonies are introduced separately, there is a freer section w/o the two tonalities, then hay return to the harmonies (mozart)
b. Use of Period Structure
Mozart had clearly phrased and balanced melodies with each successive melody founded on a different set of rhythmic values using antecedent and consequent (question/answer)
c. Symphony No. 40
hay balanced, symmetrical design, with tonalities in clear contrast to each other (mozart)
5. The Abduction from the Seraglio
by Mozart; showed a Turkish harem, and made Turkey like delightful and harmless. a. used Turkish Janissary band (Mehter) instruments
b. Zil
c. Davul
bass drum
d. Cevgan
Turkish crescent (sounds like sleigh bells)
6. Ludwig van Beethoveen
from Germany. Went deaf, prodigy. Late-classical
a. Heiligenstadt Testament
letter Beethoveen wrote his brothers right before his death about how hard it was to be deaf.
b. 9th Symphony
what Beethoveen wrote to show the pain of his deafness on him, about the process of going deaf.
1. Hildegard von Bingen
the first identifiable composer (1098-1179), was dedicated to the church as a nun. Wrote about her visions of the devil in Symphony of the Harmony of Heavenly Revelations (in Latin)
2. Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel
(1805-47) from important musical families but men in family didn’t want her to make a career out of music. Then, got married, husband let her perform. Wrote 500+ compositions, but never published.
3. Clara Wieck Schumann
1819-96) father and mother were pianists. Was considered a prodigy and debuted at age 11 in Leipzig. Appointed Imperial Chamber Virtuosa in Vienna. Married Robert Schumann in 1840, and played a lot of his works. She wrote a lot as well.
1. Franz Schubert
“king of song” wrote 600+ songs. Used word painting
2. Nationalism
when artists began to paint/composer/write to glorify country and to create a unique national identity
3. Chromaticism
accidentals began to be popular and added to melodic lines. Stressed ambivalence and ambiguity of key center.
4. Richard Wagner
famous for his operas, wrote his own librettos. Was wacko anti-Semite.
a. Gesamtkunsterwerk
synergism. Bring everything together to make the best production possible (wagner)
b. Tristan chord
dissonant chord that doesn’t resolve until the end (wagner)
c. Leitmotiv
a system where motive represent a specific persons, ideas, or objects. Used in many dramatic narratives (wagner)
d. “Music of the Future”-
wrote about the “destruction of music” b/c of capitalism. In order to ahchieve good music again, we must go back to the bases set by the greeks. 1 singer at a time, continuous music, well-written libretto
e. Stabreim
alliteration in music (wagner)
f. “The Ring”-
Wagner’s masterpiece w/ four operas inside. Think Lord of the Rings
h. Liebestod
the final scene of Tristan und Isold where hay famous example of chromatic harmony. Dissonants finally end! (wagner)
1. Program Music
orchestral music w/ a story
2. Absolute Music
orchestral music w/o story
4. P’ansori
performances that last for hours which requires heroic declamation, song, heightened speech, and pantomime. Korean
5. Synergism
combining artforms