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63 Cards in this Set

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Aaron Copland (1900-1990)
Influenced by Jazz
Strongly Tonal in his Music
Polychordal, polyrythms
Changing meters and percussive orchestrations
"Billy the Kid" "Rodeo"
Cowboy Prairie Spirit
George Gershwin (1898-1937)
Wrote "Swanee" in 1920
"I Got Rhythm" jazz influence Chords
Wrote Pop Tunes
Crossover artist
"Rhapsody in Blue, An American in Paris, Porgy and Bess"
Igor Stravinsky (1882-1871)
Known for Rhythmic Variety (Complex & unpredictable)
Russian
"The Firebird (1910), Retrushka (1911), The Rite of Spring (1913)"
"The Rite of Spring" not well received
Influence of America's Jazz Age in "Ragtime and Piano-Rag Music"
Richard Wagner (1813-1883)
Incredibly Egotistical
Influenced by Beethoven
1843 - Court Conductor in Dresden
1848 - Fled Germany due to coup wrote "Art Work of the Future, Opera and Drama"
Invented the Wagner Tuba
Invented Music Drama
Invented Leitmotivs
Anti-Semite
"Ring of the Nibelungs"
Built new opera in Bayreuth
Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
Schubertaides - Playings with close friends
Wrote over 900 works
600 Art Songs, 8 symphones and chamber works
Studied with Antonio Salieri
John Adams (b.1947)
Post 1950 Composer
Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847)
German Jew
Converted to Christianity
Proclaimed as "new" Mozart
Composed over 100 by age of 20
Sparked new interest in Bach in 1829 with performance of "St. Matthew Passion"
Died 6 months after beloved sister
Known for 5 symphonies, oratorios, a violin concerto and incidental music to Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream"
Fanny Mendelssohn
Beloved Sister of Felix Mendelssohn
Died in May of 1847
Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)
"Symphony Fantastic" Won Grand Prize of Rome
Music diminished thereafter
Program music - The Story of his love for Harriett Smithson
Became clearing house for contemporary music
Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)
Bohemian Jew
Strict Conductor of Beethoven, Wagner and Mozart
Difficult compositions to perform
Obtained directorship of Vienna Opera House
Accepted appointment at Metropolitan Opera and New York Philharmonic
"Symphony of a Thousand"
Revival by Leonard Bernstein
Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
Linked Romantic to 20th Century
Attended Paris Conservatory of Music
Pianist for Madame von Meck
Won Prix de Rome in 1884
Influenced by music of Wagner and Asia
"Prelude to the Afternoon of a Fawn"
Borrowed money for the luxuries that he craved
Developed and died of cancer, 1918 in Paris
Krystof Penderecki (b. 1933)
Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima
Auschwitz Oratorio
The Devils of Loudun
Conductor
Professor at Yale
Franz Liszt (1811-1886)
Hungarian, large hands
Court musician at Esterhazy palace
Composition lessons with Antonio Salieri
Heard Nicolai Paganini play and practiced in years of seclusion
Most famous works composed in Weimar between 1848 and 1858
Frederic Chopin (1810-1849)
Great Piano Virtuoso
"Poet of the piano"
Exclusivity for the Piano
Most were practice pieces (Etudes)
Etudes of Chopin were of high performance quality
Peter Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)
Great Melodist
Attended St. Petersburg Music Conservatory
First success "Romeo & Juliet Fantasia"
Support patron (Madame von Meck)
1890-Meck withdrew support because he accidentally met her
Presided over opening of Carnegie Hall
Symphonies 4, 5, 6, "Nutcracker, Swan Lake, and 1812 Overture"
Charles Ives (1874-1954)
America's First Great Composer
Church Organist at 13
Yale University at 20
Yankee Doodle, Columbia the Gem of the Ocean, America
1947 - Pulitzer Prize for his Third Symphony (1911)
Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)
Most important composer of Expressionist Music
Studied only Violin
Influenced by Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, Wagner and Mahler
Romantic style until age 25
Twelve-tone system
Music largely not understood by audiences
Ellen Zwilich (b. 1939)
Important Post-1950 Composer
libretto
Literally (little book)
Text used in an extended musical work
leitmotiv
Signature melodies used to describe a character, object or idea
gesamtkunstwerk
German for universal art work
art songs
Vocal music composition, solo singer with accompaniment
minimalism
characterized by a steady pulse, clear tonality, and insistent repetition of short melodic patterns
universal artwork
Wagner form of Opera
Libretto, music, choreography, and scenery as one
program music
instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea or scene
The Art-Work of the Future
One of two important writings of Wagner during his 12 year exile
Opera and Drama
One of two important writings of Wagner during his 12 year exile
etude
Practice piece for musicians
Chopin's were so grand they are commonly performed by other musicians
polyrythmic
more than one rhythm at the same time
expressionalism (1910-1939)
fascination with the unconscious of people's inner feelings, rather than outward appearance
primitivism
artistic movement which originated as a reaction to the Enlightenment
polychordal
More than one Chord played at once on top of each other
ring cycle
Cycle of music dramas written by Richard Wagner
impressionalism (1890-1950)
focused on suggestion and atmosphere rather than strong emotion
Occurred in reaction to excess from Romantic movement
music quotation
when musical quotes from past compositions are highlighted in a new work, often with new harmonies
Duke Ellington (1899-1974)
One of America's Greatest composers
Residency at Cotton Club spawned Swing Band
Some members stayed with him 20-42 years
Explored many tone colors in music composition
First Jazz composer to utilize the crescendo/diminuendo
"Take the A-train, Mood Indigo, Sophisticated Lady, It Don't Mean a Thing"
Scott Joplin (1868-1917)
Most famous composer of Ragtime
"Maple Leaf Rag, The Entertainer"
Fletcher Henderson (1897-1952)
African American jazz pianist
Had many impacts as a composer in Big Band Jazz and Swing Music
Charlie Parker (1920-1955)
Major contribution to the Bebop Style
Improvisations densely packed and played at lightning speed
Original Dixieland Jazz Band
1917 - Made the first Jazz recording
Louis Armstrong (1901-1971)
"Father of Jazz"
First greatest soloists in Jazz history
Used swing on 1/8th notes
Syncopated selected rhythmic figures
Broke away from melody and used chord progression
Model trumpet player
Scat singing
Bessie Smith (1894-1937)
fist stars of vocal blues
"Empress of the Blues"
"Down Hearted Blues"
Featured in short film "St. Louis Blues"
Glenn Miller (1904-1944)
Best selling artists 1939-1942
Leading one of the best known Big Bands
Died in plane crash
Stephen Foster (1826-1864)
Father of American Popular Music
"Oh! Susanna, Camptown Races, Swanee River, I Dream of Jeanie With Light Brown Hair, Beautiful Dreamer"
Joe Oliver
Leader of Joe Oliver's Creole Band
Band that Louis Armstrong joined in 1922
Benny Goodman (1935-1945)
King of Swing
Famous for precision of his band
Evening radio show "Let's Dance"
Hired black musicians like: Lionel Hampton, Charlie Christian, and Cootie Williams
Performed at Carnegie Hall in mid-1930s, gave credit to the Jazz music art-form
Dizzy Gillespie (1917-1993)
Major jazz trumpet virtuoso of 40s-50s
High register playing
Afro-Cuban musical interest
"Gillespie Syndrome" - Inflated Cheeks
The Beatles (b. 1959)
Gained great popularity with a few years
Famous for using non-rock tone colors
Such as: orchestral instruments and ethnic instruments
Very independent from the main stream and creative
The Rolling Stones (b. 1960s)
English band whose blues, R&B and rock and roll-infused music became popular during the "British Invasion" in the early 1960s
Ragtime
Precursor to Jazz
Syncopation Key component
"ragged-time"
Scott Joplin most famous ragtime composer
Cotton Club (1927-1931)
where Ellington's band held residency
Where Ellington began to use the Swing Band in new unprecedented ways
In Harlem
Blues form
First Line: I, I, I, I
Second Line: IV, IV, I, I
Third Line: V, V (or IV), I, I
C-scale blues: C, Eb, F, F#, G, Bb & C
Syncopation
A playing of notes off the beat
Unexpected rhythm
Scat
To sing music without lyrics
Armstrong first to make this popular
Piano Pounder
One who does nothing but practice piano
Gershwin
Bebop
Faster Tempo than Swing
Few Rests
3-5 Musicians (piano, bass, drums, sax/trumpet
Form ABA (Tune, Improv, recap)
Bass is the time-keeper
Contributers: Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie
"Hot Five"
Louis Armstrong's first jazz recording band held under his name
typical New Orleans jazz band, consisting of trumpet, clarinet, and trombone backed by a rhythm section
Middle Ages
Mainly choral or a capella
Plainchant customary from 400-ca.1000s
No independent bass line
No harpsichord, clarinets, trumpets, saxophones, or tubas
Renaissance
Mainly choral or a capella
Often imitative polyphony present
Bass line is more detectable
No harpsichord, clarinets, trumpets, saxophones or tubas
Baroque
Instrumental and choral settings common Much less common is a capella Instruments used alone (w/out voices) beginning to be more common
Recitatives and arias very common in many of the vocal forms
Harpsichord and organ used heavily (still no clarinets, saxes or tubas)
Basso continuo (continuous bass) present
Classical
Instruments used alone (w/out voices) even more common than Baroque Piano used as main keyboard solo instrument; harpsichord use diminished No basso continuo Texture is largely homophonic
Standard orchestral sound identifiable (woodwinds, brass, strings, percussion) Still no saxes or tubas, though
Romantic
Instruments used without voices more common, with exception of opera Piano, violin used as main solo (concerto) instruments No basso continuo
Texture is largely homophonic
Melodies are longer, not as balanced as in Classical era
Standard orchestral sound identifiable (woodwinds, brass, strings, percussion), although the tuba is now in use
20th Century
Melody is not always easily identified
Rhythmic irregularity often present
Sometimes tonal center is not detectable (atonal music)
Percussion section used a great deal
Saxophones join the orchestral fabric