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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
6 parts of skeletal system
skull
spinal column
thorax
pelvis
lower extremities
upper extremities
function of musculoskeletal system
give body shape
protect internal organs
provide for movement
store salts and other material needed for metabolism
to produce red blood cells necessary for oxygen transport
tendons connect
muscle to bone
ligaments
connect bone to bone
3 types of muscles
voluntary
cardiac
involuntary
open fracture is when
any time there is a break in the continuity of a bone and a break in the skin
closed fracture
break in the continuity of a bone NO break in the skin
sign is
sign is blood pressure something we can see as EMT
symptom is
something like a headache what the patient tells you.
open fracture is additionally complicated by
the introduction of bacteria and other contaminants that may lead to infection
signs and symptoms of a fracture
pain
tenderness
deformity
discoloration
parasthesia distal to the fracture site
anesthesia distal to the fracture site
Paresis
paralysis
inability to move the extremity
decreased pulse amplitude, increased capillary refill time, pale cool skin
Parasthesia
tingling or abnormal sensation
may indicate nerve damage
anesthesia
loss of feeling
may indicate nerve damage
paresis
weakness
may indicate nerve damage
paralysis
loss of muscle control
may indicate nerve damage
hairline fracture
small crack in bone
no instability
pathologic fracture
disease
degeneration and dramatically weakens bone prone to fracture
osteoporosis
degenerative bone disorder associated
accelerated loss of minerals primarily calcium from the bone
usually women after menopause
osteoporosis
degenerative bone disorder associated
accelerated loss of minerals primarily calcium from the bone
usually women after menopause
stain
injury to muscle or muscle and tendon
overextention
overstretching
NO edema or discoloration
Sprain
injury to a joint capsule, connective tissue, usually in ligaments
inflamed and swollen
discoloration
Dislocation
usually swelling
unable to move
damage to blood vessels
general injury considerations
important to determine the mechanism of injury as well as signs and symptoms of the injury itself
direct impact
at the point of impact
indirect force
force impacts on one end of a limb causing injury some distance away from point of impact
critical fractures
femur and pelvis
femur and pelvis fracture
serious bleeding
immobilize
close proximity to large vessels
Femur fracture
1500mL or 1.5L of blood loss
splinting reduces pain and amount of blood.
Traction splint accomplishes two goals
bone ends realigned preventing further injury reduce pain
the size and diameter of thigh decreased less blood loss pressure on bleeding bone ends
pelvis fracture
large amount of bleeding, 2 L
pneumatic shock garment
stabilize fracture and reduce size of compartment into which the pelvis can bleed
distracting injuries
fractured extremities may distract the pt from complaining of other more significant pain such as abdominal or spinal pain.
six P's
Pain
Pallor
Paralysis
Paresthesia
Pressure
Pulses
after splinting evaluate signs of CMSTP every?
15 min
page 991
forearm is fractured, immobilize the...
wrist and elbow
immobilize the joints above and below a long bone injury
if the elbow is injured, immobilize the...
the humerus of the upper arm and the radius and the ulna of the forearm.
immobilize the bones above and below the joint injury.
remove all _____ around the injury site, especially distally.
jewelry
make how many attempts to align an extremity?
one attempt.
if pain resistance or crepitus increase STOP
8 types of splints
rigid
pressure splint
traction
formable
vacuum
sling and swathe
spine board
improvised splints
Do NOT traction splint if... (5)
injury is within 1-2 inches of the knee or ankle
the knee itself has been injured
the hip has been injured
the pelvis has been injured
partial amputation or avulsion with long bone separation, and the distal limb is connected only by marginal tissue
compartment syndrome
tissue pressure in a confined space causing decreased blood flow leading to hypoxia and possible muscle nerve and vessel impairment