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145 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the main functions of bones
support, protection of internal organs, voluntary movement, blood cell production, mineral storage
Basic contents of bone
Organic material (collagen); inorganic material (calcium, phosphate)
Bone is classified according to ______
Bone structures
Cortical (compact and dense) and cancellous (spongy)
Haversian systems
cylinder-shaped structural units that fit closely together in compact bone. Run parallel to the bone's long axis and contain the blood vessels that travel to the bone's interior from the perosteum
concentric rings surrounding the haversian canals which characterize mature bone;
smaller canals that extend from the haversian canals to the lacunae
where mature bone cells are embedded,
strength and organization of cancellous bone
lacks the organized structure of cortical (compact)bone; lamellae are not arranged in concentric rings but along the lines of maximum stress placed on the bone.
three types of bone cells
osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts
synthesise organic bone matrix (collagen) and are the basic bone-forming cells
the mature bone cells
participate in bone remodeling by assisting in the breakdown of bone tissue
bone remodeling
removal of old bone by osteoclasts the deposition of new bone by osteoblasts
Removal of old bone by osteoclasts in bone remodeling is called...
deposition of new bone by osteoblasts is called...
what is the inner layer of bone primarily made of
osteoblasts with a few osteoclasts
3 parts in the grose structure of each long bone
epiphysis, diaphysis, metaphysis
the widened area found at each end of a long bone
composition of the epiphysis
primarily cancellous bone
advantage of widened shape of epiphysis
greater weight distribution and stability for the joint
location of muscle attachment in a long bone
what covers the ends of the epiphysis and why?
articular cartilage to provide a smooth surface for joint movement
main shaft of the bone
function of the diaphysis in the long bone
structural support
composition of the diaphysis in a long bone
compact bone
what does the tubular structure of the diaphysis allow?
resistance to bending and twisting forces
the flared area between the epiphysis and the diaphysis
composition of metaphysis in the long bone
cancellous bone
epiphyseal plate
growth zone; the cartilaginous areas between the epiphysis and metaphysis
function of the epiphyseal plate
actively produces bone to allow longitudinal growth in children
changes in the epiphysis in the adult
epiphysis and metaphysis become joined when the plate hardens to mature bone
fibrous connective tissue that covers the bone
how does nutrition get to the bone
tiny blood vessels penetrate the periosteum
mechanism to attach muscles to the bone
musculotendinous fibers anchor to the outer layer of the periosteum; inner layer of the periosteum is attached to the bone by bundles of collagen
cavity in the center of the diaphysis
medullary (marrow) cavity
what does the medullary cavity contain
red or yellow bone marrow
location of blood cell formation in adults
red bone marrow of the skull, ribs, sternum, pelvis, vertebrae, shoulders
adult contents of medullary cavity of long bones
yellow bone marrow
child contents of medullary cavity of long bones
red bone marrow
composition and function of yellow bone marrow
mostly adipose tissue; only involved in hematopoiesis in times of great blood cell need
how many bones are in the adult skeleton
classification of bones according to shape
long, short, flat, irregular
Long bones
central shaft and 2 widened ends
short bones
cancellous bone covered by a thin layer of compact bone
examples of short bones
carpals in hand and tarsals in foot
examples of long bones
femur, humerus, radius
flat bones
2 layers of compact bone separated by a layer of cancellous bone; spaces in the canellous bone contain bone marrow
examples of flat bones
ribs, skull, scapula, sternum
place where the ends of 2 bones are in proximity and move in relation to each other
classification of joints according to ...
the degree of movement that they allow
most common joint
diarthroidal (synovial) type
how is the joint connected together?
it is enclosed in a capsule of fibrous connective tissue;bones secured by ligaments
what lines the joint capsule?
synovial membrane
function of synovial membrane
secretes a thick synovial fluid to lubricate the joint and reduce friction
types of diarthroidal joints
hinge joint, ball and socket (spheroidal); pivot (rotary); condyloid; saddle; gliding
movement of hinge joint
flexion and extension
examples of hinge joint
elbow; interphalangeal joints, knee
movement of ball and socket joint
flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction
examples of ball and socket joints
shoulder and hip
movement of the pivot joint
example of pivot joint
atlas-axis; proximal radioulnar joint (forearm)
movement of saddle joint
flexion, extension; abduction, adduction; circumduction, thumb-finger opposition
example of saddle joints
carpometacrpal joint of thumb
movement of gliding joint
one surface moves over another surface
examples of gliding joints
between tarsal bones, sacroiliac joint, between articular processes of vertebrae, between carpal bones
rigid connective tissue that serves as support for soft tissue and provides the articular surface for joint movement
special function of cartilage
epiphyseal plate
why do cartilage cells heal slowly?
it is relatively avascular so nourishment must reach the cells by diffusion through synovial fluid rather than direct circulation
what are the 3 types of cartilage?
hyaline, elastic, fibrous
hyaline cartilage
most common; moderate amount of collagen fibers
where is hyaline cartilage found?
trachea, bronchi, nose, epiphyseal plate, articular surfaces of bones
elastic cartilage
contains both collagen and elastic fibers and is more flexible than hyaline cartilage
where is elastic cartilage found?
ear, epiglottis, laryns
fibrous cartilage is also called...
fibrous cartilage
mostly collagen fibers and is tough tissue that often functions as a shock absorber
where is fibrous cartilage found?
between the vertebral disks and also forms a protective cushion between the bones of the pelvic girdle, knee, and shoulder
what are the 3 types of muscle tissue
Cardiac (striated, involuntary), smooth (nonstriated, involuntary), and skeletal (striated, voluntary)
regulation of smooth muscle contraction
neuronal and hormonal
regulation of skeletal muscle contraction
weight of skeletal muscle comprises how much of the total adult body weight?
about half
structural unit of muscle
muscle cell or muscle fiber
what are muscle fibers
long, multinucleated cylinders that contain many mitochondria to support their high metabolic activity
composition of muscle fibers
myofibrils, which in turn are made up of contractile filaments
the contractile unit of the myofibrils
composition of sacromere
myosin (thick) filaments and actin (thin) filaments
muscle contraction occurs when...
thick and thin filaments slide past each other causing the sarcomeres to shorten
what are the 2 groups of skeletal muscle fibers based on activity
slow-twitch and fast-twitch
what type of activity do slow-twitch muscle fibers support?
prolonged activity such as marathon running; support against gravity; mantain posture
what type of activity do fast-twitch muscle fibers support?
rapid muscle contraction for blinking, jumping, sprinting
motor end plate
a nerve fiber and the skeletal muscle fibers it stumulates
neuromuscular junction
the junction between the axon of the nerve cell and the adjacent muscle cell
neuromuscular juncution is also called
myoneural junction
what triggers the contraction in the myofibrils?
release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
primary source of energy for muscle contraction
secondary source of energy for muscle contraction
problem w/ glycolysis use for energy for muscle contraction
lactic acid build-up
composition of ligaments and tendons
dense frbrous connective tissue that contains bundles of closely packed collagen fibers arranged in the same plane for additional strength
function of tendons
attaches muscles to bone
function of ligaments
connect bone to bone
repair of ligaments and tendons after injury is...
slow due to poor blood supply
layers of connective tissue w/ intermeshed fibers that can withstand limited stretching; provides strength and reduction of friction
what facia is right under the skin?
superficial facia
deep facia
dense, fibrous tissue that surrounds the muscle bundles, nerves, and blood vessels; also encloses individual muscles;
small sacs of connective tissue lined with synovial membrane and containing synovial fluid
location and function of bursae
typically located at bony prominences or joints to relieve pressure and prevent friction between moving parts
inflammation of a bursa sac
changes in the bone remodeling process in the aging adult
increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation decreases bone density
what happens to muscle mass in aging adults?
almost 30% of muscle mass is lost by the 8th decade of life
tendons and ligaments in the elderly...
are less flexible
gerontologic changes in muscle
decreased number and diameter of muscle cells, replacement of muscle cells by fibrous connective tissue; loss of elasticity in ligaments and cartilage; reduced ability to store and release glycogen
gerontologic changes in joints
increased risk for cartilage disruption that contributes to direct contact between bone ends and overgrowth of bone around joint margins; loss of water from disks between vertebrae, narrow ing of intervertbral spaces
gerontologic changes in bone
decrease in bone density
most common sx of musculoskeletal impairment
pain, weakness, deformity, limitation of movement, stiffness, joint crepitation
illnesses that are known to affect the musculoskeletal system either directly or indirectly
turberculosis; poliomyelitis; diabetes; parathyroid problems; hemophilia; rickets; scurvy; soft tissue infection, neuromuscular disabilities
in the musculoskeletal system, secondary infection can...
enter the bones resulting in osteomyelitis
possible side effects related to the musculoskeletal system ~antiseizure drugs
possible side effects related to the musculoskeletal system ~phenothiazines
gait distrubances
possible side effects related to the musculoskeletal system ~corticosteroids
avascular decrosis, decreased bone and muscle mass
possible side effects related to the musculoskeletal system ~potassium-depleting diuretics
muscle cramps and weakness
what can episodes of amenorrhea do the bones?
can contribute to early development of osteoporosis
health practices related to the musculoskeletal system
keeping normal body weight, avoidance of excessive stress on muscles and joints, use of proper body mechanics when lifting
musculoskeletal hx should include...
1) Mechanism of the injury (twist, crush, stretch, etc)
2) circumstances
3) diagnostic evaluations
4) treatments
5)duration of tx
6) current status related to the injury
7) need for assistive devices
8) interference with ADLs
musculoskeletal disorders that may be genetically related...
rheumatoid arthritis, sickle cell disease, osteoarthritis, gout, soteoporosis, scoliosis
essential nutrients for a healthy musculoskeletal system
vitamins C & D, calcium, and protein
effects of sporadic exercise on the musculoskeletal system
can cause more injury than regular exercise
measures the angle of a joint
muscle strength scale ~ 0
no detection of muscular contraction
muscle strength scale ~ 1
a barely detectable flicker or trace of contraction with observation or palpation
muscle strength scale ~ 2
active movement of body part with elimination of gravity
muscle strength scale ~ 3
active movement against gravity only and not against resistance
muscle strength scale ~ 4
active movement against gravity and some resistance
muscle strength scale ~ 5
active movement against full resistance without evident fatigue (normal muscle strength)
where is muscle mass measured
circumferentially at the largest area of the muscle
scarring within a joint leading to stiffness or fixation
contracture results from
fibrosis of supporting soft tissues
small fluid-filled synovial cyst usually on dorsal surface of wrist or foot
kyphosis is also known as...
dowager's hump
pes planus
lateral curvature of thoracic spine
partial disclocation of a joint
possible causes of kyphosis
poor posture, tuberculosis, growth distrubance of vertebral epiphyses
possible etiology of pes planus
congenital, muscle paralysis, mild cerebral palsy, early muscular dystrophy