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36 Cards in this Set

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Ewing Sarcoma
Malignant bone tumor
exostosis
Bony growth arising from the surface of bone (ex-means out, -ostosis means condition of bone).
fracture
Traumatic breaking of a bone.
Examples of fractures:
Colles fracture -occurs near the wrist joint at the lower end of the radius.
comminuted fracture-bone is splintered or crushed into several pieces. A simple fracture means that a bone breaks in only one place and is therefore not comminuted.
compression fracture-Bone is compressed; often occurs in vertebrae.
greenstick fracture-bone is partially broken; it breaks on one surface and only bends on the other, as when a green stick breaks; occurs in children
impacted fracture-One fragment is drive firmly into the other.
osteogenic sarcoma
Malignant tumor arising from bone (osteosarcoma). This is the most common type of malignant bone turmor. Osteoblast multiply forming large, bony tumors, especially at the end of long bones.
osteomalacia
softening of bone, with inadequate amounts of mineral (calcium) in the bone.
osteomyelitis
inflammation of the bone and bone marrow secondary to infection.
osteoporosis
Decrease in bone density (mass); thinning and weakening of bone. This condition is also called osteopenia because the interior of bones is diminished.
talipes
Congenital abnormality of the hindfoot (involving the talus). a congenital anomaly (abnormal positioning of the fetus in the womb). Also known as clubfoot.
arthritis
Inflammation of joints
ankylosing spondylitis
Chronic, progressive arthritis with stiffening of joints, primarily of the spine.
gouty arthritis
Inflammation and painful swelling of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the body.
Osteoarthritis (OA)
Progressive, degenerative joint disease characterized by loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone (formation of osteophytes, or bone spurs,)at articular surfaces.
rheumatiod arthritis (RA)
Chronic disease in which joints become inflamed and painful. It is believed to be caused by an immune ) autoimmune) reaction against joint tissues, particularly against of synovial membrane.
bunion
Abnormal swelling of the medial aspect of the joint between the big toe and the first metatarsal bone.
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
Compression (by a wrist ligament) of the median nerve as it passes between the ligament and the bones and tendons of the wrist (the carpal tunnel).
dislocation
Displacement of a bone from its joint.
ganglion
a fluid-filled cyst arising from the joint capsule or a tendon in the wrist.
herniation of an intervertebral disk (disc)
Abnormal protrusion of a fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disk into the neural canal or spinal nerves.
Lyme disease
A recurrent disorder marked by severe arthritis, myalgia, malaise, and neurologic and cardiac symptoms.
Sprain
Trauma to a joint with pain, swelling, and injury to ligaments.
Systemic lupus
erythematosus (SLE)
Chronic Inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints, skin kidneys, nervous system, heart, and lungs.
Muscular dystrophy
A group of inherited disease characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers without involvement of the nervous system.
Polymyositis
Chronic inflammatory myopathy
antinuclear antibody test (ANA)
Detects and antibody present in serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
Measures the rate at which erythrocytes settle to the bottom of a test tube.
rheumatoid factor test (RF)
Serum is tested for the presence of an antibody found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Serum calcium (Ca)
Measurement of calcium level in serum
Serum creatine kinase (CK)
Measurement of an enzyme (creatine kinase) in serum
Uric acid test
Measurement of uric acid in serum.
arthrocentesis
Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the joint space.
arthrography
Process of taking x-ray images after injection of contrast material into the joint.
arthroscopy
Visual examination of the inside of a joint with an endoscope and television camera.
bone density test (bone densitometry)
Low-energy x-ray absorption in bones of the spinal column, pelvis, and wrist to measure bone mass.
bone scan
uptake of radioactive substance is measured in bone.
computed tomography (CT)
X-ray beam is used with a computer to provide cross-sectional images.
diskography
X-ray examination of cervical or lumbar intervertebral disk after injection of contrast into nucleus pulposus (interior of the disk)