Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/73

Click to flip

73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cartilage
- Type of connective tissue composed of a chondril (elastic matrix) secreted by chondrocytes
- avascular and devoid of nerves
-receives nutrients by capillaries of nearby connective tissue and bone via diffusion
Bone
- mineralized connective tissue
Compact bone
- dense bone matrix
- contains hydroxyapatite crystals
Spongy bone
- less dense bone
- has spicule latice with yellow and/or red bone marrow filled between spicules
yellow bone marrow
- inactive
- contains adipose tissue
red bone marrow
- for red blood cell formation
long bones
- have fiaphysis and epiphyses
diaphysis
- in long bone
- mostly compact bone surrounding a cavity of bone marrow
epiphyses
- in long bone
- composed of spongy bone surrounded by thin layer of compact bone
epiphyseal plate
- disk of cartilaginous cells separating diaphysis from the epiphysis
- site of longitudinal growth
periosteum
- fibrous sheath surrounding long bone
- site of attachment to muscle tissue
- some periosteum cells differentiate into bone-forming cells
structural units of the bone matrix
- osteons (Haversian systems)
haversian canal
- channel in each osteon for blood vessels and nerve fibers and lymph
lamellae
concentric circles surrounding each haversian canal in an osteon
lacunae
spaces in the matrix which house mature bone cells (osteocytes)
osteocytes
- mature bone cells
- involved in bone maintenance
canaliculi
- small canals the interconnect with each other and with the Hacersian canals
- allow for exchange of nutrients and wastes
osteoblasts
- build bone
osteoclasts
- destroy bone in bone resorption
endochondral ossification
- process of bone formation
- existing cartilage is replaced by bone
- long bone is made this way
intramembranous ossification
- process of bone formation
- mesenchymal connective tissue is transformed into and replaced by bone
joints
connective tissue structures that join bones together
skeletal muscle
- innervated by somatic nervous system
- mutlinucleated
- voluntary
- Ca2+ required for contraction
Cardiac muscle
- striated
- involuntary
- innervated by autonomic nervous system
- 1-2 nuclei per cell
- Ca2+ for contraction
- myogenic activity (contract without nervous stimuli
Smooth muscle
- non-striated
- involuntary
- autonomic innervation
- one nucleus per cell
- Ca+ for contraction
- slower, sustained contractions
- inhibitory and excitatory synapses
- myogenic activity (contract without nervous stimuli)
bone reformation
inorganic ions are absorbed from the blood for use in bone formation
bone resorption
- bone degradation
- inorganic ions are released into the blood
red muscle fibers
- slow-twitch
- high myoblobin content
- lots of mitochondria
white muscle fibers
- fast-twitch muscle
- low myoglobin content
- less mitochondria
- anaerobic
- greater rate of contraction
- fatigue easily
Bands that shorter during contraction
H zone and I band
Z line
define boundaries of a single sarcomere
M line
- runs down center of sarcomere
- contains myosin
I band
thin filaments only
A band
spans entire length of thick filaments and overlapping protions of thin filaments
troponin
- Ca2+ binds troponin causing myosin-binding sites to be uncovered
tropomyosin
- rope-like
- associates with myosin fibrils
- blocks myosin-binding sites
ATPase activity
- resting stage: ATP is hydrolyzed
- Ca2+ binds to troponin and myosin binds to actin
- powerstroke: sarcomere contracts
- ADP + Pi are released
- New ATP binds to myosin, causing detachment of myosin from actin and relaxation
all-or-none response
- individual muslce fibers exhibit all-or-none response
- strenght of contraction of a single muscle fiber cannot be increased regardless of stimulus strength
increasing strength of contraction
- strength of contraction can increase only when the number of fibers involved increase
tonus
continula low-grade contractions of muscle (even at rest)
simple twitch
- the response of a single muscle fiber to a brief stimulus at or above threshold stimulus
- consists of a latent, contraction, and relaxation period
latent period
- time between stimulation and onset of contraction
- lag time in which action potential spreads along sarcolema and Ca2+ are released
contraction period
- muscles contract
relaxation period
- period of refraction (absolute and relative) in which the muscle is unresponsive or less response to a stilumus
absolute refractory period
- during relaxation period
- muscle is unresponsive to stimuli
relative refractory period
- during relaxation period
- takes a greater-than-normal stimulus to elicit another contraction
summation
- conbination of contractions in response to a frequent stimuli
- contraction becomes stronger and prolonged
tetanus
- stronger than a simple twitch
- contractions are continuous and muscle cannot relax
- eventual fatigue
myogenic
- when muscle contracts in the absence of nerve stimuli
creatine phosphate
- energy storage
- creatine phosphate + ADP = ATP + creatine
- creatine + ATP = creatine + ADP
loose connective tissue
- throughout body
- binds wpitehlium to underlying tissues
- packaging material
- holds organs in place
3 proteinacious fibers in loose connective tissue
collagenous fibers
elastic fivers
reticular fibers
collagenous fibers
- made of collagen
- give tensile strength
elastic fibers
- made of elastin
- give resilience
reticular fibers
- branched, tightly woven
- join connective tissue to adjoining tissue
fibroblasts
- secrete substances that are components of extracellular fibers
- cell found in connective tissue
macrophages
- engulf bacteria and dead cells
- cell found in connective tissue
dense connective tissue
- more collagenous fibers
- form tendons and ligaments
tendons
attach muscle to bone
ligaments
attach bone to bone
origin
location where end of muscle attaches to the stationary bone
proximal end
location of origin in limb muscles
insertion
end of muscle attached to the bone that moves during contraction
distal end
location of insertion in limb muscles
synergistic muscles
assiste the principal muscles during movement
flexor muscles
contract to decrease angle of a joint
extensor muscles
contract to straighten the joint
abductor
moves a part of the body away from body's midline
adductor
moves a part of the body toward the midline
Contrast the means by which chondrocytes and osteocytes are nourished.
- Chondrocytes are vascularized and are nourished via diffusion of nutrients from adjacent blood vessels
- osteocytes receive nutrients directly from circulatory system via Hacersian canals
Two processes involved in bone formation. How do they differ?
- endochondral ossification: cartilage is replaced by bone
- intramembranous ossification: mesenchymal cells are transformed into bone cells
Which type of muscle has myogenic activity?
smooth muscle and cardia muscle
Periosteum
- serves as the site of attachment of bone to muscle
- cells of periosteum differentiate into osteoblasts
- is a fibrous sheath that surrounds long bones