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58 Cards in this Set

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avulsion fracture
tendon or ligament pulls off part of bone
comminuted fracture
has more than 2 fragments, smaller fragments appear to be floating
Displaced fracture is also known as
overriding fracture
Displaced fracture
displaced fracture fragment that is overridingthe other bone fragment. Ther periosteum is disrupted on both sides
Greenstick fracture
incomplete fractrue with oe side splintered and the other side bent
Impacted fracture
comminuted fracture in which more than two fragments are driven into each other
Interarticular fracture
extends to the articular surface of the bone
Longitudinal fracture
incomplete, fracture line runns along the lingitudinal axis of the bone. Periosteum is not torn away from the bone
Oblique fracture
line of fracture esxtends in an oblique direction
Pathologic fracture
spontaneous at the site of a bone disease
Spiral fracture
spiral along the bone shaft
Stress fracture
in normal or abnormal bone, fracture that results from repeated stress
Transverse fracture fracture
line of the fracture extends across the bone shaft at a right angle to the longitudinal axis
What is a fracture?
a disruption or break in the continuity of the structure of bone
Fractures are described and classified according to...
type; open or closed; anatomic location on the involved bone, appearance, position, and alignment; classic names; also as stable or unstable
stable fracture
a piece of the periosteum is intact across the fracture and either external or internal fixation has rendered the fragments stationary
Stable fractures are usually...
transverse, spiral, or greenstick
unstable fracture
is grossly displaced during injury and is a stie of poor fixation
unstable fractures are usually...
comminuted or oblique
open fracture
tissue broken over fracture
term for fracture self-healing
first stage stage of bone healing and how does it move to the second stage
fracture hematoma - eventually converts to granulation tissue
when does a fracture hematoma form?
within the first 72 hours after injury
second stage of bone healing
granulation tissue
What happens in the granulation tissue stage of bone healing?
active phagocytosis absorbs the products of local necrosis. Hematoma turns to granulation tissue. Forms basis for osteoid
new bone substance
time frame for granulation tissue stage
3-14 days postinjury
what does granulation tissue consist of?
new blood vessels, fibroblasts, and osteoblasts
third stage of bone healing
callus formation
Callus formation
as minerals are deposited in the osteoid, an unorganized netowrk of bone is formed that is woven around the fracture parts
What is callus primarily composed of?
cartilage, osteoblasts, calcium, and phosphorus
When does callus formation usually start?
by the end of the second week after injury
How can callus formation be verified?
by x-ray
fourth stage in the bone healing process
When does ossification occur?
from 3 weeks to 6 months after the fracture, continues until the fracture has healed
Fifth stage of bone healing
distance between bone fragments diminishes and eventually closes
radiologic union
sixth stage of bone healing
excess bone tissue is reabsorbed and bone healing is complete
fracture classification accroding to location
tibeal plateau, tibial tuberosity, tibial shaft, lateral malleolus ... or... promimal, middle, and distal third of the bone
what helps bone to remodel?
physical stress
how does physical stress assist bone remodeling
new bone is deposited in sties subjected to stress and resorbed at areas where there is little stress
When does remodeling occur?
up to a year following injury
delayed union
bone healing does not occur within the expected time
bone does not heal at all,
what can cause nonunion?
inadequate reducation and immobilization; excess movement; infection; poor nutrition; systemic disease
How can age affect bone healing?
healing time increases with age
possible tx for nonunion or delayed union
electrical stimulation
how does electrical stimulate bone remodeling?
unknown, may be t/t nevative electrical fields attracting positive ions such as calcium
Overall goals of fracture tx
reduction; immobilization; restoration of function to the affected part
anatomic realignment of bone fragments
what does nonunion result in
fibrous union or pseudarthrosis
fx heals in expected time but in wrong position
fx heals in abnormal position in relation to midline of structure (form of malunion)
False joint is formed on shaft of long bone. Fracture site that failed to fuse; each bone is covered with fibrous scar ts.
new fx that occurs at original fx site
myositis ossificans
Soft ts hematoma ossifies