Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/76

Click to flip

76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Concave-convex rule:

When a convex surface moves on a fixed concave surface...
the convex surface moves in a direction opposite to the direction of the shaft of the bony lever.
Concave-convex rule:

When a concave surface moves on a fixed convex surface...
the concave surface moves in the same direction as the bony lever
Concave-rule in spine
convex rule applies at the atlanto-occipital joint

below 2nd vertebra, concave rule applies
Concave-convex

Sternoclavicular
elevation/depression:
convex: clavicle
concave: sternum
opposite direction

protraction/retraction
convex: sternum
concave: clavicle
same direction
Concave-convex

Acromioclavicular
convex: clavicle
concave: acromion

opposite direction
Concave-convex

Glenohumeral
resting position: 55 degrees abd, 30 degrees horizontal add

convex: humerus
concave: glenoid

opposite direction
Loose-packed position

glenohumeral

Closed-Pack Position
55-77 degrees abd
30 degrees horizontal adduction
neutral rotation

max abd + ER
Loose-packed position

humeroulnar

Closed-Pack Position
70 deg flex
10 deg sup

full ext +sup
Loose-packed position

humeroradial

Closed-Pack Position
full ext and sup

90 deg flex + 5 deg sup
Loose-packed position

proximal radioulnar

Closed-Pack Position
70 deg flex, 35 deg sup

5 deg sup + full ext
Loose-packed position

distal radioulnar

Closed-Pack Position
10 deg sup

5 deg sup
Loose-packed position

radio/ulnocarpal
neutral with slight ulnar deviation
Loose-packed position

hip

Closed-Pack Position
30 deg flex
30 deg abd
slight lateral rotation

ligamentous: full ext, abd, IR
bony: 90 deg flexion, slight abd, slight ER
Loose-packed position

knee

Closed-Pack Position
25 deg flex

full ext + ER
Loose-packed position

talocrural

Closed-Pack Position
mid inversion/eversion
10 deg PF

full DF
Loose-packed position

subtalar & mid-tarsal

Closed-Pack Position
midway between extremes of ROM with 10 deg PF

full inversion
Over what ribs does the scapula sit?
2nd - 7th
What is the orientation of the glenoid fossa
on lateral angle of scapula
30 deg anterior to frontal plane
(so true abduction is 30 deg ant to frontal plane)
Capsular pattern

temporomandibular
limitation of mouth opening
Capsular pattern

occipitoatlantal joint

atlantoaxial joint
forward bening more limited than backward bending

restriction with rotation
Capsular pattern

Lower cervical spine
limitation of all motions except flexion

sidebending = rotations> backward bending
Capsular pattern

Sternoclavicular
full elevation limited; pain at extreme ROM
Capsular pattern

Acromioclavicular
full elevation limited; pain at extreme ROM
Glenohumeral
greater limitation of ER, followed by abdcution and IR
Capsular pattern

humeroulnar
loss of flexion > extension
Capsular pattern

humeroradial
loss of flexion> extension
Capsular pattern

forearm
equally restricted in pronation and supination in presence of elbow restriction
Capsular pattern

proximal radioulnar
limitation pronation = supination
Capsular pattern

Distal radioulnar
limitation: pronation = supination
Capsular pattern

wrist
limitation: flexion = extension
Capsular pattern

thoracic spine
limitation of sidebending and rotation>loss of extension>flexion
Capsular pattern

lumbar spine
marked and equal limitation of sidebending and rotation; loss of extension > flexion
Capsular pattern

Sacroiliac, symphysis pubis, sacrococcygeal
pain when joints are stressed
Capsular pattern

Hip
limited flexion/IR; some limiation of abduction; no or little limitation of adduction and ER.
Capsular pattern

Tibiofemoral (knee)
flexion grossly limited; slight limitation of extension
Tibiofibular
Pain when joint is stressed
Capsular pattern

talocrural
loss of PF>DF
Capsular pattern

talocalcaneal (subtalar)
increasing limitations of varus; joint fixed in valgus (inversion>eversion)
Capsular pattern

Midtarsal
supination.pronation (limited DF, PF, add, medial rotation
Capsular pattern

First metatarsophalangeal
marked limitation of extension; slight limitation of flexion
Capsular pattern

Metatarsophalangeal (II-V)
Variable; tend toward flexon restrictions
Capsular pattern

Interphalangeal
tend toward extension restrictions
Sternal end of clavicle - shape
convex - superior/inferior

concave - anterior/posterior
Reflexes
C5
C6
C7
C5 - biceps brachii
C6 - brachioradialis
C7 - triceps
Glenohumeral joint arthrokinematics / osteokinematics...

At approximately 75 deg of elvation what happens at the joint and why
external rotation occurs which prevents compression of greater tubercle against the acromion.
Scapulohumeral rhythm

What is the ratio of movement with 180 deg of abduction
2:1 glenohumeral with scapulothoracic
Apprehension test for anterior shoulder dislocation
Pt position: supine
Limb position: arm 90 d abduction
PT action: ER arm
Positive test indicated by: look of apprehension
Positive test suggests: shoulder laxity/risk for dislocation
Apprehension test for posterior shoulder dislocation
Pt position: supine
Limb position: arm 90 d flexion and IR
PT action: apply posterior force through long axix of humerus
Positive test indicated by: look of apprehension
Positive test suggests: posterior capsule laxity/risk for dislocation
Ludington's Test
teiceps Tendon Pathology
Pt position: sitting;
Limb position: clasp both hands behind head w/ fingers interlocked. Actively contracts and relaxes biceps.
PT action: ask pt to actively contract and relax biceps.
Positive test indicated by: absence of movement in biceps tendon
Positive test suggests: rupture of long head of biceps
Speed's Test
Biceps Tendon Pathology
Pt position: sitting or standing
Limb position: arm extended and forearm supinated
PT action: put one hand over bicipital groove and other hand on volar surface of forearm. Resist active shoulder flexion.
Positive test indicated by: pain or tenderness in biciptial groove region.
Positive test suggests: bicipital tendonitis.
Yergason's Test
Bicipital Tendon Pathology
Pt position: sitting
Limb position: 90 d elbow flexion, forearm pronated. Humerus stabilized against pt's thorax
PT action: 1 hand on pt's forearm, other hand over biciptal groove. Ask pt to actively supinate and ER against resistance
Positive test indicated by: pain or tenderness in bicipital groove
Positive test suggests: bicipital tendonitis
Drop Arm Test
Rotator Cuff Pathology / Impingement
Pt position: sitting or standing
Limb position: arms 90 d of abduction
PT action: ask pt to slowly lower arms to side
Positive test indicated by: unable to lower arm slowly or severe pain
Positive test suggests: tear in rotator cuff
Hawkins-Kennedy Impingement Test
Pt position: sitting or standing
Limb position: shoulder at 90 d flexion + IR
PT action: positions arm in flexion and IR
Positive test indicated by: pain
Positive test suggests: impingement involving supraspinatus tendon
Neer Impingement
Pt position: sitting or standing
Limb position & PT action: 1 hand on posterior aspect of pt's scapula and other hand stabilizing elbow. elevate pt's arm through flexion.
Positive test indicated by: facial grimace, pain
Positive test suggests: impingement invovling supraspinatus tendon
Supraspinatus Test
Pt position:
Limb position & PT action: limb positioned in 90 d abduction + 30 d horizontal adduction with thumb pointing downward. PT resists pt's attempt to abduct arm
Positive test indicated by: weakness or pain
Positive test suggests: tear of supraspinatus tendon, impingement, suprascapular nerve involvement.
Adson Maneuver
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
Pt position: sitting or standing
Limb position:
PT action: monitor radial pulse, ask pt to rotate head to face test shoulder, then extend head while PT ERs and extens pt's shoulder
Positive test indicated by: absent or diminished radial pulse
Positive test suggests: possible TOS
Allen Test
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
Pt position: sitting or standing
Limb position: test arm 90 d abduction, ER, elbow flexion
PT action: ask pt to rotate head away from test should, PT monitors radial pulse
Positive test indicated by: absent/diminished pulse when head is rot'd away from test shoulder
Positive test suggests: TOS
Costoclavicular Syndrome Test
Pt position: sitting
Limb position:
PT action: monitors radial pules, assists pt to assume military posture
Positive test indicated by: absent or diminished pulse when head is rot'd away from the test shoulder.
Positive test suggests: TOS
Roos
Pt position: sitting or standing
Limb position: arm 90 d abduction, ER, elbow flex.
PT action: Ask pt to open and close their hands for 3 minutes
Positive test indicated by: inability to maintain test position, weakness of arms, sensory loss or ischemic pain.
Positive test suggests: TOS
Wright test (hyperabduction test)
Pt position: sitting or supine
Limb position:
PT action: moves pt's arm overhead in frontal plane while monitoring radial pusle
Positive test indicated by: absent or diminished radial pulse
Positive test suggests: compression of costoclavicular space
Glenoid Labrum Tear Test

aka Clunk Test?
Pt position: supine
Limb position:
PT action: one hand on posterior aspect of pt's humeral head, other hand stabilizes huerus proximal to elbow. Passively abduct and ER arm over pt's head, then apply anterior directed forse to humerus.
Positive test indicated by: clunk of grinding sounds
Positive test suggests: glenoid labrum tear
Elbow Varus Stress Test
Pt position: sitting
Limb position: elbow 20 d of flexion
PT action: places 1 hand on elbow and other hand proximal to pt's wrist. Applies varus force. Palpate lateral joint line.
Positive test indicated by: increased laxity in lateral collateral ligament, apprehension, pain.
Positive test suggests: lateral collateral ligament sprain
Elbow Valgus Stress Test
Pt position: sitting
Limb position:elbow 20-30 d flexion
PT action: place 1 hand on elbow, other hand proximal to pt's wrist. Applies valgus force, palpate medial joint line.
Positive test indicated by: increased laxity in medial collateral ligament, apprehension, pain.
Positive test suggests: medial collateral ligament sprain,
Cozen's Test
Epicondylitis
Pt position: sitting
Limb position: elbow in slight flexion
PT action: place thumb on pt's lateral epicondyle while stabilizing the elbow joint. Ask pt to make a fist, pronate forearm, radially deviate and extend wrist against resistance.
Positive test indicated by: pain in lateral epicondyle region or muscle weakness.
Positive test suggests: lateral epicondylitis
Lateral Epicondylitis Test
Pt position: sitting
Limb position:
PT action: stabilizes elbow w/ 1 hand, place other hand on dorsal aspect of pt's hand distal to proximal interphalangeal joint. Ask pt to extend 3rd digit against resistance.
Positive test indicated by: pain, weakness
Positive test suggests: lateral epicondylitis
Medial Epidoncylitis Test
Pt position: sitting
Limb position:
PT action: palpates medial epicondyle, supinates pt's forearm, extends, wrist, extends elbow.
Positive test indicated by: pain in medial epicondyle region
Positive test suggests: medfial epicondylitis
Mill's Test
Pt position: sitting
Limb position:
PT action: palpates lateral epicondyle and pronates pt's forearm, flexes wrist, extends elbow.
Positive test indicated by: pain in lateral epicondyle regions
Positive test suggests: lateral epicondylitis
Ulnar collateral ligament instability test
Pt position: sitting
Limb position:
PT action: holds pt's thumb in ext, applies valgus force to MCP joint of thumb.
Positive test indicated by: excessive valgus movements
Positive test suggests: tear of ulnar collateral and accessory collateral ligments
"gamekeeper's" or "skier's thumb"
Allen Test
Pt position: sitting or standing
Limb position:
PT action: ask pt to open/close hand several times in succession, then keep hand in closed position; compressradial and ulnar arteries; ask pt to relax hand, release pressure on 1 of arteris, observe color of hand/fingers
Positive test indicated by: delayed or absent flushing of radial or ulnar half of hand.
Positive test suggests: occusion in radial or ulnar artery.
Bunnel-Littler Test
Pt position: sitting
Limb position: MCP joint held in slight extension
PT action: moves proximal IP jt into flexion.
Positive test indicated by & Suggests: Proximal IP jt does not flex with MCP jt extended: may be tight intrinsic muscle or capsular tightness. If proximal IP joint fully flexes w/ MCP joint in slight flexion, there may be intrinsic muscle tightness without capsular tightness
Positive test suggests:
Tight Retinacular Test
Pt position: sitting
Limb position: PIP joint in neutral, DIP flexed
PT action:
Positive test indicated by & Suggests: if unable to flex DIP the retinacular ligaments or capsule may be tight. If able to flex the DIP w/ PIP in flexion, retinacular ligaments may be tight and capsule may be normal.
Positive test suggests:
Froment's Sign
Pt position: sitting or standing
Limb position:
PT action: ask pt to hold piece of paper between thumb and index finger; pt attempts tto pull paper away from the pt
Positive test indicated by: pt flexing distal phlanb of thumb d/t adductor pollicis muscle paralysis. If at the same time pt hyper extends the MCP joint of thumb --> "Jeanne's Sign"
Positive test suggests: ulnar nerve compromise or paralysis
Grind Test
Pt position: sitting or standing
Limb position:
PT action: stabilize pt's thumb on metacarpal. Apply compression and rotation through the metacarpal.
Positive test indicated by pain:
Positive test suggests: DJD of carpometalcarpal joint
Murphy Sign
Pt position: sitting or standing
Limb position:
PT action: ask pt to make a fist
Positive test indicated by: pt's 3rd metcarpal remaining level w/ the 2nd and 4th metacarpals.
Positive test suggests: dislocated lunate
Tripod Sign
Pt position: sitting, knees flexed to 90 d over edg of table
PT action: passively extend 1 knee
Positive test indicated by: tightness in H.S. or extension of trunk in order to limit effect of tight h.s.0
Positive test suggests: tight h.s.
90-90 SLR
Pt position: supine
Limb position: pt stabilizes hips in 90 d flexion with knees relaxed.
PT action: ask pt to alternately extend each knee as much as possible while maintaining the hips in 90 d flexion.
Positive test indicated by: kne stays in 20 d+ flexion
Positive test suggests: H.S. tightness