Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the four elements that make up the basic structure of skeletal muscle?
What do attachments consist of?
Origin - fixed attachment, usually at the proximal end, does not move during muscle contraction
Insertion - moveable attachment, usually distal, moves during muscle contraction.
There are four main types of skeletal muscle based on patterns resulting from the arrangement of fibres, name them.
Which type of skeletal muscle is always found around external openings?
Which type of skeletal muscle has short fibres attached obliquely to a central tendon?
Which type of skeletal muscle has a broad origin with fibres moving towards a single tendon?
Which type of skeletal muscle is the most common? Describe it.
Parallel - muscle fibres run with the longitudinal axis of the muscle, muscle is either straplike or fusiform(wide in middle).
How are muscles attached to bone?
Directly - fascia of the muscle attaches to bone or cartilage.
Indirectly - fascia of the muscle extends beyond as a tendon(ropelike) or aponeurosis(flat,broad) anchoring the muscle to bone, cartilage or the fascia of other muscle.
Which is the more common of attachments?
Most muscles attach indirectly.
A muscle can be in one of three states. What are these?
Contracted - muscle is shortened and a joint is moved with two bones coming closer together.
Relaxed - muscle is in neutral
Stretched - muscle is lengthened due to opposing muscle contraction.
What is a Prime Mover?
It is the primary muscle effecting a desired joint movement.
What do you call the muscle when it opposes a certain movement?
An antagonist. When a prime mover is active its antagonist is stretched and relaxed.
What does a Synergist muscle do?
It assists in performing the desired joint movement by performing the same movement or reducing undesired movement.
What is a fixator?
A fixator is a specialized synergist that stabilises a joint during movement.
What is the most important concept when thinking about the way muscles move?
Muscles PULL they don't push.
There are three ways a muscle can contract to produce force, these are?
Concentric - muscle shortens during contraction
Eccentric - muscle lengthens during contraction
Isometric - a muscle contraction where the muscle remains the same length.
What are the muscles of the upper back?
Trapezius(upper, middle, lower)
Levator Scapulae
What is the origin of the Trapezius?
Occipital bone
Nuchal ligament C1-C7
Spinous processes C7-T12
What is the insertion of the Trapezius?
Spine of Scapula
Acromian process of Scapula
Lateral 1/3 of the Clavicle
(the inseryion forms a continuous v)
What is the action of the Trapezius?
Depression(lower traps)
Retraction(middle traps)
Elevation(upper traps)
Are the Trapezius a prime mover for any of those actions?
Yes for the head extension.
What is the Origin of the Rhomboids?
Spinous processes C7-T5
What is the Insertion of the Rhomboids?
Medial Border of Scapula
- from inferior angle to spine of scapula
What is the action of the Rhomboids?
What muscular pain is the Levator Scapulae commonly associated with?
Tension of the posterior neck, particularly when rotation is involved.
What is the origin of the Levator Scapulae?
Transverse Processes C1-C4
What is the Insertion of the Levator Scapulae?
Medial border of scapula
- from superior angle to the spine of scapula
What is the action of the Levator Scapula?
Lateral Flexion
What are the muscles of the neck?
Splenius Capitus
What is the origin of the sternocleidomastoid?
Manubrium of the sternum
Medial 1/3rd of clavicle
What is the insertion of the sternocleidomastoid?
Mastoid process of temporal bone
What is the action of the sternocleidomastoid?
Head: Flexion(both)PM
Lateral flexion(one)-to same side
Rotation(one)-to opposit side
What is the origin of the scalenes?
Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae
What is the insertion of the scalenes?
Ribs 1 and 2
What is the action of the scalenes?
Ribs: Elevation
Neck: Flexion